Nice Grinding Service photos

Nice Grinding Service photos

Check out these grinding service pictures:

Speyer – Technikmuseum Speyer – De Havilland Vampire Schweizer Luftwaffe J-1081

Image by Daniel Mennerich
The de Havilland DH.100 Vampire was a British jet fighter created and manufactured by de Havilland. Obtaining been developed throughout the Second Planet War to harness the newly created jet engine, the Vampire entered service with the Royal Air Force (RAF) in 1945. It was the second jet fighter, following the Gloster Meteor, operated by the RAF and its very first to be powered by a single jet engine.

The RAF utilized the Vampire as a front line fighter until 1953 ahead of it assumed secondary roles such as pilot instruction. It was retired by the RAF in 1966, replaced by the Hawker Hunter and Gloster Javelin. It accomplished several aviation firsts and records, like getting the initial jet aircraft to cross the Atlantic Ocean. The Vampire had several export sales and was operated by various air forces. It participated in subsequent conflicts such as the 1948 Arab–Israeli War, the Malayan emergency and the Rhodesian Bush War.

Virtually three,300 Vampires had been manufactured, a quarter of them built under licence in other countries. The Royal Navy’s 1st jet fighter was the Sea Vampire, a navalised variant which was operated from its aircraft carriers. The Vampire was created into the DH.115 dual-seat trainer and the much more advanced DH.112 Venom ground-attack and night fighter.

Chantilly VA – Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center – Curtiss P-40E Kittyhawk 01

Image by Daniel Mennerich
The Curtiss P-40 Warhawk was an American single-engine, single-seat, all-metal fighter and ground attack aircraft that initial flew in 1938. The P-40 style was a modification of the previous Curtiss P-36 Hawk which reduced improvement time and enabled a rapid entry into production and operational service. The Warhawk was employed by the air forces of 28 nations, including those of most Allied powers for the duration of World War II, and remained in front line service until the end of the war. It was the third most-developed American fighter, soon after the P-51 and P-47 by November 1944, when production of the P-40 ceased, 13,738 had been built, all at Curtiss-Wright Corporation’s major production facilities at Buffalo, New York.

Donald S. Lopez, Sr. ( July 15, 1923 — March three, 2008) was a former U.S. Army and U.S. Air Force fighter and test pilot and until his death the deputy director of the Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum.

Chantilly VA – Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center – Curtiss P-40E Kittyhawk 02

Image by Daniel Mennerich
The Curtiss P-40 Warhawk was an American single-engine, single-seat, all-metal fighter and ground attack aircraft that initial flew in 1938. The P-40 design was a modification of the earlier Curtiss P-36 Hawk which reduced improvement time and enabled a rapid entry into production and operational service. The Warhawk was employed by the air forces of 28 nations, including these of most Allied powers during World War II, and remained in front line service till the end of the war. It was the third most-produced American fighter, soon after the P-51 and P-47 by November 1944, when production of the P-40 ceased, 13,738 had been constructed, all at Curtiss-Wright Corporation’s primary production facilities at Buffalo, New York.

Donald S. Lopez, Sr. ( July 15, 1923 — March three, 2008) was a former U.S. Army and U.S. Air Force fighter and test pilot and until his death the deputy director of the Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum.



A few good vertical grinding images I found:


Image by paul bica

The Beth Chatto Gardens – A Small Bit of Light Releaf!

Image by antonychammond
One particular of the greats of British gardening, Beth Chatto OBE has entered the realm of national treasuredom. Plants-lady, designer, author, 10-time gold-medal winner at Chelsea, holder of the Royal Horticultural Society’s Victoria Medal of Honour and, of course, the owner of the celebrated Beth Chatto Gardens at Elmstead Market, close to Colchester, in Essex – her horticultural abilities seem boundless. With the idea of “right plant, proper place” – in other words, put a plant in circumstances close to its organic habitat and it will thrive without assist – running as a thread throughout her profession, she has inspired a generation of gardeners to take their lead from nature.

The garden has been the inspiration for several of her influential books, like The Dry Garden (1978), The Damp Garden (1992) and Beth Chatto’s Gravel Garden (2000). It was designed on land that was previously component of a fruit farm, owned by her late husband, Andrew, 14 years her senior, whom she married in 1943. “We met in the course of the war,” she says. “I was a schoolgirl of about 17, contemplating going to college.”

A scholarly man, who died in 1999 after suffering from emphysema for 25 years, Andrew devoted significantly of his life to investigation into plant habitats. Chatto says it was he who inspired her interest in gardening and refers to him often, modestly deferring to his superior knowledge. “He’s such an essential influence in my life,” she says. “My parents had been keen, but they had a conventional garden, using mostly cultivars.”

The couple lived initially in his parents’ in Colchester, but in the late 1950s moved to a modernist property they’d built on the edge of the farm – exactly where Chatto nevertheless lives these days. Even inside, the garden is a continual presence. Large windows frame views and vignettes of the planting on each side and invite a tapestry of textures, colours and shapes into the residence.

Chatto credits her husband almost totally for her success. “My two daughters have been teenagers just before I started to think about generating a company,” she says. “Andrew had looked after us and offered me the safety and freedom to experiment.” Her husband’s failing overall health and the trials of running a fruit farm concentrated her mind on establishing the garden commercially, even though what we see right now took time to emerge.

“For the very first seven or eight years, a lot of the land was a wilderness,” she recalls. But there had been assets, also, not least a rare natural water supply in the drought-prone east of Essex, exactly where rainfall can be as small as 20in a year. “There were a couple of fine 300-year-old oaks and a spring-fed ditch ran through the hollow.” Nowadays, the ornamental gardens cover about 5 acres a further 10 are occupied by the nursery, which opened in 1967, and functioning areas.

Locating water was not the only challenge. “There was land that was so dry, the native weeds curled up and died. That eventually became my gravel garden,” she says. This she designed in 1991, on the internet site of a car park. Apart from watering in the young, drought-tolerant plants in the course of the first year, she has never artificially irrigated it.

Chatto has a knack for turning problem regions into an asset, and there are numerous distinct regions in the garden, every requiring a distinct approach. The huge water gardens are dominated by a series of ponds surrounded by bog plants and swathes of lush grass. A extended, shady stroll runs parallel to 1 of the boundaries. Here, shade-tolerant planting – such as ferns, tiarella and pulmonaria – carpet the ground beneath oaks and other specimen trees added by Chatto. By contrast, the gravel region is a mass of sun-loving perennials, with asters, rudbeckias and sedums glowing by way of hazy grasses.

The garden might have started out to give pleasure to a household, but it has created into a self-contained horticultural powerhouse, attracting visitors from all over the world – about 40,000 a year. “It’s like sowing an acorn, which is my symbol,” says Chatto. “I have an acorn and an oak tree on a climate vane, which was a superb present from my staff.” Incredibly, it is tended by only one complete-time and 4 element-time gardeners and volunteers – many of whom are foreign students. Chatto remains resolutely hands-on and is keen to pass on the understanding she has gained via expertise.

Chatto utilizes grasses brilliantly, and was doing so extended before it became trendy. She creates seemingly effortless but completely satisfying combinations. Therein lies her genius – there may possibly be others out there with an equal understanding of plants, but no one else has her eye. Shape, scale, proportion, texture, colour – all are balanced with the skill of a plate-spinner.

She also factors in horticultural considerations – how big a plant will get, how quickly or gradually it will develop, what circumstances it wants to thrive and how it is maintained. The outcome is a garden that functions on each and every level – practical, horticultural and aesthetic – with layer upon layer of meticulously placed plants, as enticing asmillefeuillepastry. It all appears completely uncontrived, but, on closer inspection, one particular notices geometric lines and angles. The big picture is constructed up steadily, with tiny groupings of 3 or much more plants forming a satisfying melange of verticals and horizontals, and fluffy and strong plants. “I require the trees and shrubs to form a background, to paint the sky and lead the eye upwards towards the clouds,” Chatto explains. “Then one adds the embroidery, which I take pleasure in so considerably.” Nothing is allowed to get out of hand, but stagnation is not an selection, either. “A garden is not a picture hanging on a wall,” she says. “It modifications not only from hour to hour, week to week or month to month, but from year to year.”

Chatto has certainly noticed the effects of climate change. Drought is absolutely nothing new in her part of the world, where (the past two years aside) there is often no rain for up to ten weeks in the summer. “The most interesting change is the lack of cold climate,” she says. “Only ten years ago, we had icicles hanging down, and when the young children were small, they utilised to skate. Now we hardly have enough ice to bear a duck.” From an report by Rachel de Thame

Please go to for additional data about this inspirational gardener and garden.

Daybreak at Gale Crater

Image by NASA Goddard Photo and Video
On Saturday, November 26, NASA is scheduled to launch the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission featuring Curiosity, the largest and most sophisticated rover ever sent to the Red Planet.

The Curiosity rover bristles with several cameras and instruments, like Goddard’s Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument suite. By looking for proof of water, carbon, and other critical building blocks of life in the Martian soil and atmosphere, SAM will assist find out no matter whether Mars ever had the possible to help life. Curiosity will be delivered to Gale crater, a 96-mile-wide crater that contains a record of environmental adjustments in its sedimentary rock, in August 2012.


This pc-generated view depicts component of Mars at the boundary between darkness and daylight, with an location which includes Gale Crater beginning to catch morning light.

Gale Crater looms in the distance, distinguished from adjacent craters by its central mountain of strata. Gale Crater straddles the dichotomy boundary of Mars, which separates the broad, flat, and young northern plains from the a lot older and rougher southern highlands. There is evidence that water may possibly have flowed across this topographic boundary, from highland to lowland, possibly pooling locally inside Gale Crater and forming the lowermost strata that fill the crater.

Northward is to the left. Gale is the crater with a mound inside it near the center of the image. NASA has selected Gale as the landing internet site for the Mars Science Laboratory mission. The mission’s rover will be placed on the ground in a northern portion of Gale Crater in August 2012.

Gale Crater is 96 miles (154 kilometers) in diameter and holds a layered mountain increasing about three miles (five kilometers) above the crater floor. The intended landing website is at four.five degrees south latitude, 137.4 degrees east longitude.

This view was developed making use of three-dimensional info from the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter, which flew on NASA’s Mars Global Surveyor orbiter. The vertical dimension is not exaggerated. Colour information is primarily based on basic Mars colour traits.

The Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter was operated by NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md. NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, managed the Mars International Surveyor and now manages the Mars Science Laboratory for NASA’s Science Mission Directorate in Washington.

Image Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech

NASA image use policy.

NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through 4 scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a top role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific information to advance the Agency’s mission.

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Good Vertical Grinding images

Good Vertical Grinding images

Some cool vertical grinding photos:

Tree fern frond ……..

Image by Dilan Damith Prasanga’s
From Wikipedia :

In basic, any fern that grows with a trunk elevating the fronds (leaves) above ground level can be called a tree fern. Nonetheless, the plants formally known as tree ferns comprise a group of large ferns belonging to the families Dicksoniaceae and Cyatheaceae in the order Cyatheales.

Tree ferns are discovered increasing in tropical and subtropical locations, as nicely as temperate rainforests in South Africa, Australia, New Zealand, and other island groups nearby a couple of genera extend further, such as Culcita in southern Europe. Like all ferns, tree ferns reproduce by implies of spores created in sporangia on the undersides of the fronds.

Dicksonia antarctica at Kew
The fronds of tree ferns are typically extremely large and numerous-pinnated, but at least 1 variety has complete (undivided) fronds. The fronds of tree ferns also exhibit circinate vernation, which means the young fronds emerge in coils that uncurl as they grow.

As opposed to flowering plants, tree ferns do not form new woody tissue in their trunk as they grow. Rather, the trunk is supported by a fibrous mass of roots that expands as the tree fern grows.

Some genera — for instance Dicksonia and Cibotium, but not Cyathea — can be transplanted by severing the prime portion from the rest of the trunk and replanting it. If the transplanted top element is kept moist it will regrow a new root program over the next year. The success price of transplantation increases to about 80% if the roots are dug up intact. If the crown of the Tasmanian tree fern Dicksonia antarctica (the most frequent species in gardens) is damaged, it will die simply because all new development happens there. But other clump-forming tree fern species, such as D. squarrosa and D. youngiae, can regenerate from basal offsets or from &quotpups&quot emerging along the surviving trunk length. Tree ferns usually fall over in the wild, but manage to reroot from this new prostrate position and commence new vertical development.

Read far more :

© Dilan Damith Prasanga | 2014

M5A1 (Stuart VI) Light Tank. 1941- 43.

Image by Peer.Gynt
Moscow. Kubinka Tank Museum.

The M3 Stuart, formally Light Tank M3 was an American light tank of Planet War II. It was used by British and Commonwealth forces prior to the entry of the USA into the war, and thereafter by US and Allied forces until the finish of the war. The name Basic Stuart or Stuart given by the British comes from the American Civil War General J.E.B. Stuart and was utilised for both the M3 and M5 Light Tank in British service it also had the unofficial nickname of Honey. To the United States Army the tanks were officially recognized only as Light Tank M3 and Light Tank M5.
Observing events in Europe, American tank designers realized that the Light Tank M2 was becoming obsolete and set about enhancing it. The upgraded design and style, with thicker armor, modified suspension and new gun recoil program was called &quotLight Tank M3&quot. Production of the vehicle began in March 1941 and continued until October 1943. Like its direct predecessor, the M2A4, the M3 was armed with a 37 mm M5 gun and five .30-06 Browning M1919A4 machine guns: coaxial with the gun, on best of the turret in an M20 AA mount, in a ball mount in appropriate bow, in the right and left hull sponsons.

To relieve the demand for the radial aero-engines utilized in the M3, a new version was created using twin Cadillac V-8 automobile engines. The new model (initially referred to as M4 but redesignated M5 to avoid confusion with the M4 Sherman) also featured a redesigned hull with sloped glacis plate and driver’s hatches moved to the leading. Despite the fact that the major criticism from the employing units was that the Stuarts lacked firepower, the improved M5 series kept the very same 37 mm gun. The M5 steadily replaced the M3 in production from 1942 and was in turn succeeded by the Light Tank M24 in 1944.

Combat history

Light Tank M5A1 passes by way of the wrecked streets of Coutances.
An Australian Stuart I for the duration of the final assault on Buna.
A British M3 (Stuart I) knocked out in the course of fighting in North Africa.The British Army was the 1st to use the Light Tank M3 as the &quotGeneral Stuart&quot in combat. In November 1941, some 170 Stuarts took part in Operation Crusader, with poor outcomes. Although the high losses suffered by Stuart-equipped units in the course of the operation had much more to do with better techniques and coaching of the Afrika Korps than the apparent superiority of German armor in the North African campaign, the operation revealed that the M3 had many technical faults. Pointed out in the British complaints were the 37 mm M5 gun and poor internal layout. The two-man turret crew was a important weakness, and some British units tried to fight with three-man turret crews. The Stuart also had a restricted range, which was a severe issue in desert warfare as units usually outpaced their supplies and had been stranded when they ran out of fuel. On the optimistic side, crews liked its high speed and mechanical reliability, therefore its unofficial nickname of Honey. The high speed and high reliability distinguished the Stuart from cruiser tanks of the period, in distinct the Crusader, which composed a massive portion of the British tank force in Africa up until 1942.

From the summer of 1942, when adequate US medium tanks had been received, the British generally kept Stuarts out of tank-to-tank combat, utilizing them mainly for reconnaissance. The turret was removed from some examples to save weight and boost speed and variety. These became recognized as &quotStuart Recce&quot. Some others have been converted to armored personnel carriers and had been recognized as &quotStuart Kangaroo&quot, and some had been converted command vehicles and known as &quotStuart Command&quot. M3s, M3A3s, and M5s continued in British service till the end of the war, but British armor units had a smaller proportion of these light tanks than US units.

The other main Lend-Lease recipient of the M3, the Soviet Union, was even less satisfied with the tank, thinking about it undergunned, underarmored, likely to catch fire, and as well sensitive to fuel top quality. The narrow tracks had been highly unsuited to operation in winter circumstances, as they resulted in high ground pressures that sank the tank into the snow. Also, the M3’s radial aircraft engine essential higher-octane fuel, which difficult Soviet logistics as most of their tanks utilized diesel. Nevertheless, the M3 was superior to early-war Soviet light tanks such as the T-60, which have been usually underpowered and possessed even lighter armament than the Stuart. In 1943, the Red Army attempted out the M5 and decided that the upgraded design wasn’t significantly greater than the M3. Being much less desperate than in 1941, the Soviets turned down an American offer you to supply the M5. M3s continued in Red Army service at least until 1944.

In US Army service, the M3 very first saw combat in the Philippines. Two battalions, comprising the Provisional Tank Group fought in the Bataan peninsula campaign. When the American army joined the North African Campaign in late 1942, Stuart units nevertheless formed a big component of its armor strength. Right after the disastrous Battle of the Kasserine Pass the US rapidly followed the British in disbanding most of their light tank battalions and subordinating the Stuarts to medium tank battalions performing the conventional cavalry missions of scouting and screening. For the rest of the war, most US tank battalions had three companies of M4 Shermans and one company of M3s or M5/M5A1s.

In the European theater, Allied light tanks had to be provided cavalry and infantry fire support roles because their principal cannon armament could not compete with heavier enemy AFVs. Even so, the Stuart was nevertheless powerful in combat in the Pacific Theater, as Japanese tanks were both reasonably uncommon and have been typically much weaker than even Allied light tanks. Japanese infantrymen were poorly equipped with anti-tank weapons and tended to attack tanks employing close-assault tactics. In this environment, the Stuart was only moderately far more vulnerable than medium tanks. In addition, the poor terrain and roads typical to the theatre have been unsuitable for the considerably heavier M4 medium tanks, and so initially, only light armor could be deployed. Heavier M4s were sooner or later brought to overcome heavily entrenched positions, although the Stuart continued to serve in a combat capacity till the finish of the war.

Though the Stuart was to be completely replaced by the newer M24 Chaffee, the quantity of M3s/M5s created was so fantastic (over 25,000 including the 75 mm HMC M8) that the tank remained in service till the end of the war and nicely right after. In addition to the United States, United Kingdom and Soviet Union, who have been the major users, it was also used by France, China (M3A3s and, instantly post-war, M5A1s) and Tito’s partisans in Yugoslavia (M3A3s and handful of M3A1).

After the war, some countries chose to equip their armies with low cost and reliable Stuarts. The Republic of China Army, having suffered wonderful attrition in terms of armors as a outcome of the ensuing civil war, rebuilt their armored forces by acquiring surplus automobiles left behind in the former PTO by the US forces, which includes 22 M5A1s to equip two tank firms. They would have their finest hours during the Battle of Kuningtou, for which the tank came to be identified as the &quotBear of Kinmen&quot (金門之熊). The M5 played a considerable part in the Initial Kashmir War (1947) amongst India and Pakistan, including the battle of Zoji-la pass at an extraordinary altitude of almost 12,000 ft. The car remained in service in a number of South American countries at least until 1996.

Throughout the 60s and 70s, the Portuguese Army also utilized some in the war in Angola, exactly where its all terrain capability (compared to wheeled cars) was greatly appreciated.

Production history
Created 1941-1943
Weight 14.7 tonnes (32,400 lb)
Length four.five m (14.eight ft)
Width two.46 m (8.1 ft)
Height 2.three m (7.five ft)
Crew four (Commander, gunner, driver, co-driver)


Armor 13 – 51 mm
armament 37 mm M6 in M44 mount
174 rounds
armament 3 x .30-06 Browning M1919A4 MG
7,500 rounds

Engine Continental W-670-9A, 7 Cylinder air-cooled radial
250 hp (186 kW)
Energy/weight 17.82 hp/tonne
Suspension Vertical volute spring
range 120 km (74 mi)
Speed 58 km/h (36 mph) (road)
30 km/h (18 mph) (off-road)

From Wikipedia, the cost-free encyclopedia

Wipperkotten – winter light at the river Wupper

Wipperkotten – winter light at the river Wupper

Some cool tool grinding photos:

Wipperkotten – winter light at the river Wupper

Image by U Kersting
The Wipperkotten in the Bergisch Land was constructed as a grindery in about 1605 and it is the last existing twin constructing of formerly 26 grinding sheds at the reduce river Wupper.
It was private initiative which brought this grindery plant with its water weir under historical
protection in 1955. Like in former instances, two undershot waterwheels are spinning between
both of these historical buildings. The land bound house is nonetheless utilised as grindery.

On a modest island in the Wupper there is our water side house. Its waterwheel was rebuilt in
1964. With its 32 wooden blades it accomplishes on to 42 BHP. ( 4,20 m)
The shown handmade tools and utensils from Bergisch grinderies are cultural documents of
the blade manufacturing . This was supported by the finding and extraction of ore
(ten. to 12. century) in this region.

Dortmund – Zeche Zollern II IV 08

Image by Daniel Mennerich
The Zeche Zollern II/IV (translated: Zollern II/IV Colliery) is positioned in the northwestern suburb of Bövinghausen of Dortmund, Germany. The Gelsenkirchener Bergwerks-AG projected Zollern in 1898 as a model colliery.

Ground up construction began in 1898 on a new website. Most of the buildings of the colliery were constructed in solid brickwork by the architect Paul Knobbe and had been completed in 1904 with the central engine house, in which the most up-to-date generators and machinery utilized in the colliery had been housed. The architecture and state-of-the-art technology help the transition of Gothic-revival to Art Nouveau and the industrialization of the early 1900s.

Due to deadline stress, the central engine property was built in iron framework building with infilling of red brickwork, planned and executed by the Gutehoffnungshütte. The Art Nouveau styled major entrance was made by the Berlin architect Bruno Möhring, it shows a lead glazing of blue, green and-glass. Counterpart of the main entrance is the massive control board of polished marble in brass mounting, with a brass clock hanging from above.

Other buildings on the web site consist of administration bureaus, blacksmith’s shop and carpenter’s shop, first-aid and fire station with stable, pithead baths, tools shop and the central gateway.

In 1969, three years following it closed down, the colliery was recognized as Germany’s 1st technical developing monument of international importance. Given that 1981, it has been the headquarters of the Westphalian Industrial Museum.

The original pit frames had been scrapped before 1969, two comparable constructions from other collieries had been reconstructed on this web site in the 1980s.

The museum is an anchor point on the European Route of Industrial Heritage.

Grinding stone

Image by GaiaK

Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center: south hangar panorama, which includes Vought OS2U-three Kingfisher seaplane, B-29 Superfortress “Enola Gay”, amongst other people

Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center: south hangar panorama, which includes Vought OS2U-three Kingfisher seaplane, B-29 Superfortress “Enola Gay”, amongst other people

A couple of nice prototype manufacturing business images I found:

Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center: south hangar panorama, which includes Vought OS2U-three Kingfisher seaplane, B-29 Superfortress “Enola Gay”, among other individuals

Image by Chris Devers
Quoting Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum | Vought OS2U-three Kingfisher:

The Kingfisher was the U.S. Navy’s principal ship-primarily based, scout and observation aircraft throughout Globe War II. Revolutionary spot welding methods gave it a smooth, non-buckling fuselage structure. Deflector plate flaps that hung from the wing’s trailing edge and spoiler-augmented ailerons functioned like extra flaps to let slower landing speeds. Most OS2Us operated in the Pacific, exactly where they rescued several downed airmen, which includes Globe War I ace Eddie Rickenbacker and the crew of his B-17 Flying Fortress.

In March 1942, this airplane was assigned to the battleship USS Indiana. It later underwent a six-month overhaul in California, returned to Pearl Harbor, and rejoined the Indiana in March 1944. Lt. j.g. Rollin M. Batten Jr. was awarded the Navy Cross for generating a daring rescue in this airplane under heavy enemy fire on July four, 1944.

Transferred from the United States Navy.

Vought-Sikorsky Aircraft Division


Nation of Origin:
United States of America

General: 15ft 1 1/8in. x 33ft 9 1/2in., 4122.6lb., 36ft 1 1/16in. (460 x 1030cm, 1870kg, 1100cm)

Wings covered with fabric aft of the principal spar

Physical Description:
Two-seat monoplane, deflector plate flaps hung from the trailing edge of the wing, ailerons drooped at low airspeeds to function like additional flaps, spoilers.

• • • • •

Quoting Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum | Boeing B-29 Superfortress &quotEnola Gay&quot:

Boeing’s B-29 Superfortress was the most sophisticated propeller-driven bomber of World War II and the first bomber to property its crew in pressurized compartments. Though designed to fight in the European theater, the B-29 discovered its niche on the other side of the globe. In the Pacific, B-29s delivered a range of aerial weapons: traditional bombs, incendiary bombs, mines, and two nuclear weapons.

On August 6, 1945, this Martin-constructed B-29-45-MO dropped the 1st atomic weapon utilised in combat on Hiroshima, Japan. 3 days later, Bockscar (on show at the U.S. Air Force Museum close to Dayton, Ohio) dropped a second atomic bomb on Nagasaki, Japan. Enola Gay flew as the advance weather reconnaissance aircraft that day. A third B-29, The Great Artiste, flew as an observation aircraft on both missions.

Transferred from the United States Air Force.

Boeing Aircraft Co.
Martin Co., Omaha, Nebr.


Nation of Origin:
United States of America

General: 900 x 3020cm, 32580kg, 4300cm (29ft six five/16in. x 99ft 1in., 71825.9lb., 141ft 15/16in.)

Polished all round aluminum finish

Physical Description:
4-engine heavy bomber with semi-monoqoque fuselage and high-aspect ratio wings. Polished aluminum finish general, common late-World War II Army Air Forces insignia on wings and aft fuselage and serial number on vertical fin 509th Composite Group markings painted in black &quotEnola Gay&quot in black, block letters on decrease left nose.

1960 Borgward Isabella Coupé (02)

Image by Georg Sander
The Borgward Isabella is a medium sized two door saloon that was manufactured by the Bremen based auto-manufacturer Carl F. W. Borgward GmbH among 1954 and 1962. Initially the car was badged, like its predecessor, as the Hansa 1500, but within the firm it was identified from the starting by the code name, Isabella (following Carl Borgward’s wife), and automobiles developed after 1957 bore the ‘Isabella’ name, inscribed eye catchingly within the rhombus at the centre of the front grill: in retrospect the car produced from 1954 is identified as the Isabella to differentiate it from the (initial) Hansa 1500/1800 which the company produced among 1949 and 1954.

Regardless of its aspirational positioning in the marketplace, the Isabella had a smaller engine (and was marginally shorter) than its immediate predecessor. Late in 1952 the firm had launched their six cylinder Hansa 2400 model. The bigger automobile by no means identified many purchasers but in 1954 it created industrial sense to hold the two models from competing too straight with a single another.

Initial sales volumes have been not maintained. Responding to a sales decline of nearly a third between 1955 and 1956, Carl Borgward decided to produce a more beautiful Isabella with a shortened roof line. The Borgward Isabella Coupé was created, and the four hand built prototypes were well received by the press. Borgward gave one particular of these prototypes to his wife, Elizabeth, who would continue to drive it into the 1980s. Commercial production of the coupé, powered by the more strong TS version of the engine first seen in the cabriolet, commenced in January 1957. The coupe seems to have accomplished it is marketing and advertising objective of further distancing the Isabella’s image from similarly sized competitors from Opel and Ford.


– – –

Die Borgward Isabella ist ein Mittelklassewagen der Carl F. W. Borgward G.m.b.H. in Bremen-Sebaldsbrück, das erfolgreichste Modell der Borgward-Gruppe, das ab ten. Juni 1954 zunächst unter dem Namen „Hansa 1500“ vom Band lief.

Der spätere Name „Isabella“ war nicht das Ergebnis von Marktuntersuchungen, sondern eine spontane Eingebung von Carl F. W. Borgward selbst. Gefragt, was man auf die noch streng geheimen Vorserien-Modelle schreiben solle, wenn sie Probefahrten im öffentlichen Verkehr machen, soll Borgward geantwortet haben: „Das ist mir egal schreibt meinetwegen Isabella drauf.&quot

Ab 1957 war der ursprüngliche Tarnname im Borgward-Rhombus des Kühlergrills zu lesen.

Die moderne Konzeption und die gefällige Erscheinung des Hansa 1500 (Isabella) wurden bei der Vorstellung 1954 enthusiastisch begrüßt. Der Wagen traf den Publikumsgeschmack und war vom ersten Tag an ein Verkaufserfolg. Der Wagen war nach einer Entwicklungszeit von nur zehn Monaten anfangs mit zahlreichen Kinderkrankheiten behaftet, die jedoch nach und nach abgestellt wurden.

Als 1956 der Absatz der Isabella gegenüber 1955 um fast ein Drittel zurückgegangen war, entschloss sich Carl Borgward, ein „schönes Auto“ mit verkürztem Dach zu bauen. Daraufhin entstand das Borgward Isabella Coupé, von dem zunächst vier Prototypen in die Öffentlichkeit gelangten und das Interesse der Presse weckten. Einen dieser handgefertigten Prototypen schenkte Borgward seiner Frau Elisabeth, die ihn bis in die 1980er Jahre fuhr.

Die Serienproduktion des Coupés (mit dem TS-Motor) begann im Januar 1957. Karl Deutsch in Köln wandelte auch dieses Modell in ein Cabriolet um, das aber den Schriftzug „Coupé“ am Heck behielt. Die Coupé-Cabriolets kosteten zwischen 15.600 und 17.000 DM.


Image from web page 196 of “Railway mechanical engineer” (1916)

Image from web page 196 of “Railway mechanical engineer” (1916)

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Image from web page 196 of “Railway mechanical engineer” (1916)

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Identifier: railwaymechanica94newy
Title: Railway mechanical engineer
Year: 1916 (1910s)
Subjects: Railroad engineering Engineering Railroads Railroad vehicles
Publisher: New York, N.Y. : Simmons-Boardman Pub. Co
Contributing Library: Carnegie Library of Pittsburgh
Digitizing Sponsor: Lyrasis Members and Sloan Foundation

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be quickly applied to anymachine tool in the shop. Numerous machine shop tools arenot equipped with a pan and pump, due to the fact they are usedmostly for operating on grey iron, but sometimes the ma-chine might be utilized on malleable iron or steel, in which casea coolant is crucial for the very best outcomes. In such instances, theportable unit illustrated can be utilized to excellent benefit.It might also be employed on machines currently supplied with acoolant method, which for some explanation or other is out oforder. In this emergency the portable method shown can be instantly brought into spot and production will notbe interrupted. The Fulllo pump illustrated is a comprehensive, self-containedsystem, requiring practically nothing but attaching the motor cord tothe lump socket. The total height from the floor is only14 in., which pennits its getting rolled below any ordinarylathe, as shown in the illustration. Provision is made forattaching additional splash boards when necessary. Thepump and motor are completely covered, thus affording

Text Appearing After Image:
Fulflo Transportable Lubricating Unit Utilised with Turret Lathe ample protection from each liquids and dust. The outfitcan be utilised on grinding machines as w-ell as on lathes,milling machines, drill presses, gear cutters, and so forth. Thereis only one particular moving portion in the pump namely, the impeller,which has no metal get in touch with, and therefore cannot put on outquickly. It is packed with metallic packing which willnot reduce the shaft. The bearings are effectively lubricated, andsince the shaft is hardened and ground, long, continuedservice may possibly be anticipated. MULTI GRADUATED PRECISION GRINDER It has Ijeen difficult in the previous to machine screw threadsurfaces with the exact same accuracy obtained in machiningcylindrical, flat or spherical surfaces. On account of thisfact, it has been difficult to make master thread gages and themachine illustrated was made for this purpose by thePrecision &amp Thread Grinder Manufacturing Business, Phil-adelphia, Pa. It can be used in conjunction with anymachine tool and is adaptable to a variety

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Please note that these pictures are extracted from scanned web page photos that may have been digitally enhanced for readability – coloration and look of these illustrations may not perfectly resemble the original perform.

Image from page 585 of “Railway mechanical engineer” (1916)

Image by Net Archive Book Images
Identifier: railwaymechanica90newy
Title: Railway mechanical engineer
Year: 1916 (1910s)
Subjects: Railroad engineering Engineering Railroads Railroad automobiles
Publisher: New York, N.Y. : Simmons-Boardman Pub. Co
Contributing Library: Carnegie Library of Pittsburgh
Digitizing Sponsor: Lyrasis Members and Sloan Foundation

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Tool for Truing Grinding Wheels.—The diamond tool is the most efficient signifies for truing theface of grinding wheels for precision work so far discovered.The reasons are: Diamonds or bortz are tougher than thewheel to be trued they are obtainable in adequate quantitiesto meet the demand: they give a indicates of creating thewheel a accurate cylinder and at the same time give anykind of wheel service desired they lend themselves to areasonably effortless setting and are conveniently applied to thework, and the waste of the wheel is negligible.—Grits andGrinds. TRIANGLE FOR USE IN TRACING BY HUGH G. BOUTELL The accompaning sketch shows a triangle which was de-veloped by the writer and has proved specifically helpful intracing function where speed is crucial. It is made up of two45-deg. triangles, one sufficient bigger than the other so thatit projects about J4 in- on all three sides. The two trianglesare held together with Le Pages glue. In tracing, considerable care is essential to slide an ordi-

Text Appearing Right after Image:
Handy Triangle for Use in Tracing nary triangle up to a freshly inked line without touching thewet ink. In the double triangle, the j4-in. projection of theupper part obviates the danger of blotting the tracing. Italso permits greater lateral freedom of the ruling pen andmakes possible much better matching up of straight lines andcurves. Railroad Coal Consumption.—The railroads of theUnited States used 128,200,000 net tons of coal in 1915.This amounts to about 24 per cent of the total output. Thebituminous mines furnished 122,000,000 tons, which is 28per cent of their production, and the Pennsylvania hard coalregions supplied six,200,000 tons, approximately 7 per centof the total production. Size of Steam Pipes for Reciprocating Engines.—Size of steam pipes for reciprocating engines operating atfull stroke might be determined by comparing the diameterof the cylinder squared and multiplied by the piston speedper minute with the diameter, assumed, for the steam pipesquared and multiplied

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Masonic Mosaic Pavement and Indented Skirting at Scarborough Temple – Scarboro Lodge 653

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This Masonic temple was sold in 2010. As a outcome all of the Masonic Lodges who met at this temple have had to relocate to other temples till a new temple has been constructed. That constructing is now a mosque.


The Mosaic Pavement
Professional Inspector of NGLR for Western Area Previous Worshipful Master, ZAMOLXIS Lodge, no. 182, Deva

&quotThe interior decoration of a masonic lodge comprises ornaments, accessories and insignia. The ornaments are: the mosaic on the floor – respresenting spirt and matter, the shining star and the laced edge, which remind us usually the initial of the presence of God and the second of the protective wall&quot – cites Charles W Leadbeater from the ritual of mixed masonry in his perform &quotFreemasonry – Rites and Initiations.&quot
In the center of the Temple, on the ground, there is a rectangular floor, with black and white tiles, called the mosaic pavement (theoretically, cubes seen perspectivally), where a relgaion obtains among the sides, either two:1 (the long square) or 1.618…/1 (the golden quantity), therefore coming up with a surface proportional to the total location of the Lodge. Thus we see that virtually the moasica, placed in the center of the Lodge is a microcosmic representation of the complete of creation and is by itself a sacred central region – whence the interdiction to ever step on the mosaic when the operate of the Lodge is underway. The pavement symbolizes the indisociable operative complementarity of the two cosmic principles: the initiate need to know how no longer let himself be dominated by the confrontation in between good and unfavorable forces, to know (it is indispensable) how to use it, to master it so as to operate constructively.
In Ancient Egypt, the mosaic was by no means stepped on except by a candidate and the masters of ceremony, and only at precise moments (by the Past Worshipful Master for the fulfilment of his tasks, by the Very first Specialist when he took the light of the sacred fire, or by the sexton when he spread frankincense on the altar of the Temple. An extremely crucial aspect of the mosaic pavement is that, getting placed in the middle of the Temple, framed by the three colonettes (which represent the Worshipful Master, the Senior and Junior Wardens), need to be avoided by walking in a square, in a symbolic sense. The current of energy cross the floor, some along the length, some along the width, in lines that remind of the warp of a canvas.
Upon opening the operate, the Trestle Board is depicted on this pavement, which varies with the initial 3 degrees. The mosaic pavement signifies distinct issues according to the traditional mode of function in the lodge, or the masonic rite employed.
The French Rite specifies that the pavement adorned the threshold of the geat porch of the Temple and showed that this is one particular of the ornaments of the Lodge, becoming the emblem of the intimate union among masons. Here it was explained to the Apprentice that he &quotcould not stand on the mosaic pavement to contemplate the interior of the edifice&quot. This started above from the seventh step, as we can well conclude by an attentive study of the Trestle Boards of the very first two degrees.
The Rectified Scottish Rite speaks as well tiny of this pavement, noting that &quotthe mosaic pavement adorns the threshold of the excellent veranda of the Temple. It covers the entry to the subterranean part of the Temple in between the two columns, to a crypt that held holy idols and especially the pledge of the alliance amongst the selected individuals and the Creator: the Royal Ark (Ark of the Covenant).
The Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite does not describe in any way this ornament. As to the decoration of the Lodge, it is said however &quotthe floor of the lodge is the pavement in option black and white squares. When it is as a result decorated, a pavement is achieved wit the shape of a extended square, placed in the center of the Lodge, decorated on the model of the latter&quot.
The York Rite affirms that &quotthe mosaic pavement represents the floor of the Temple of Solomon&quot, possessing the added laced edge. It is apparent sufficient that it is about a symbolic contribution in what regards the floor of the Lodge, due to the fact in the Bible the floor of the Temple isn’t described as an series of black and white squares: &quotand the floor of the Temple was created from cypress planks&quot (3 Kings six:15).
Whereas in the Emulation Rite (the Anglo-Saxon Rites are a lot more precise in their descriptions) specifies that &quotthe mosaic pavement may possibly rightly be regarded the wondrous tiling of a freemason Lodge due to its diversity and regularity. Hence the diversity of beings and objects in the globe surfaces, as nicely the ensouled ones as those that are not&quot. In the complementary course of the Rite of Emulation (in the fifth portion) it is specified: &quotour lodge is adorned with mosaic pavement to mark the uncertainty of all terrestrial vanities… as we step on this mosaic, our thought have to return to the original notion that we imitate and act as honorable guys and masons&quot. Mosaic pavement is presented as an image of faith, harmony, understanding..
Outside the definitions offered by distinct masonic rites, the mosaic pavement may be approached beneath a lot of aspect, two of which appear edifying to us:
• The floor of the Lodge,
• The route of squares for the tracing of planes,
When we approach the mosaic pavement as floor of the Lodge, we are forced to distinguish between the pavement of operative and speculative Lodges.
In the initial case, we specify that Lodges were typically annexes to the building web site, attached to the building on the Southern side of the Function (to get far more light and to have the wall of the edifice for protection. It is incredibly clear and evident that in this case no floor was imposed (nor would any be functional). The tiling that constitutes the mosaic is fragile in contradiction with the dimensions (weight) of the tools of freemasons (sledgehammers had been very heavy). If we are speaking about a surface for permanent cutting and polishing of rock, we can simply picture that the floor of such a location was permanently covered by fragments, remains, abrasive dust. Not in the last place, we have to note the truth that mosaic was principally fixed in especially ready mortar in which styles had been 1st marked that etched the image or drawing that was the objective of the mosaic.
In the other method, that of the speculative Lodges, a symbolic rug laid in squares might be laid on the floor, or it might be construct from alternating black and white tiles, the choice being that of the Lodge. The notionc of mosaic pavement can not be discussed ahead of the appearance of Grand Lodges.
As a route of squares – as network of right angles – to trace planes is another mode of approach certain to operative lodges, which have to distinguish:
A directory route of the edifice that need to be understood soon after we describe the Medieval constructin site at the starting of the operate: on a leveled and cleared surface (treated with charcoal), a scheme of the main lines of the edifice was traced with the support of a rope covered in chalk. There
are documents to this effect that attest the describe practice, which reminds of certain answers from the masonic catechism. To the query: &quothow do you serve your Master?&quot, there is the answer: &quotwith charcoal, chalk and clay&quot.
A technical help set of squares would be yet another variant of this strategy. An amenably arranged surface, spread in typical squares by means of lines traced for inumerable utilizes, the first and most critical becoming that of assembly table. It also served to establish easily a series of angles, in an approximate way that was adequate for a mason (taking 4 divisions on a line, and on the perpendicular seven at one particular extremity, a reasaonbly 60° angle is obtained). In fact, we can picture the banal math copybook paper that has helped us trace with far more facility (and far more precision) the geometrical shapes that tortured (or didn’t) us in the geometry problems in elementary college.
The black and white, chessboard-like pavement is therefore the mosaic pavement. In what pertains to the term &quotmosaic&quot, there are two different opinions, one particular refering to Moses and 1 to the method of decoration. Each college has its pros and cons, a lot more or less logical and valid.
&quotThe canvas of ours lives is a mixed thread, the very good collectively with the undesirable&quot wrote Shakespeare. Something is characterized by a combination of good and poor, light and shadow, joy and sadness, good and unfavorable, yin and yang. What is excellent for me might be poor for you, pleasure is generated by pain, etc.
Following the thread of the existing Paper, we may possibly say with certainty that the mosaic is not mart of the elements of Judaic architecture and that the mosaic pavement is a contribution of modern speculative Masonry, operative lodges never ever obtaining been squared this way. It is apparent that the present exposition is not and does not wish to be an exhaustive function. It is a somewhat complicated approach of an essential symbol in the decoration of the masonic Temple and it wishes in fact to the a paper addressing an open query:
- The mosaic pavement is the floor of the Lodge (as the rituals take into account it) or is it the space restricted by the three pillars Energy, Wisdom, and Beauty?
A very good believed accompanied by the triple brotherly accolade!

Copyright Forum Masonic

Masonic Altar – A place of sacrifice or worship.

Of what value is the Altar to the Lodge? The Altar is undoubtedly the most critical piece of furnishings in the Lodge. In all of the religions of antiquity, it was the usage of the priests and the folks, to pass about the Altar in the course of the sun, that is to say, from the east, by way of the south, to the west, singing hymns of praise to Deity as portion of their worship. See (&quotGreat Paschal Hallel,&quot) or hymn of praise, consisting of Psalms (113 to 118). The most crucial report of furnishings in a Lodge room is the altar, on which rests a copy of the Holy Bible open at an suitable passage and recognized as the principal light of Masonry. Ahead of this altar the candidate for the mysteries of Masonry bows in prayer symbolically, he offers up to God the incense of praise, lays on the altar the passions of his heart, and dedicates to God and to the service of Freemasonry his affections and faculties. The presence of the altar in the center of the Lodge space serves as a continual reminder of the religious character and objective of all Masonic rites and ceremonies. An Illustration of a Masonic Altar.

Image from page 151 of “The book and the land” (1904)

Image from page 151 of “The book and the land” (1904)

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Image from web page 151 of “The book and the land” (1904)

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Identifier: bookland00vans
Title: The book and the land
Year: 1904 (1900s)
Authors: Van Schoick, R[obert] W[illiam], 1843- [from old catalog]
Publisher: New York, Eaton &amp Mains
Contributing Library: The Library of Congress
Digitizing Sponsor: The Library of Congress

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colony in the city, although we had been in-formed that they have no organization, and10 140 THE BOOK AND THE LAND do not acknowledge any person as their leaderexcepting Jesus Christ. We inquired what they did in case of im-morality or insubordination in the colony.They said they labored with the offender asdirected in Matt, xviii, 15-17, and thusfar had maintained ideal discipline, andthey believed that this sensible exem-plification of the teachings of Jesus washaving wonderful influence in Jerusalem in com-mending Christianity to the folks. BothMr. Morris and myself have been impressed withtheir sincerity, and that they were aimingto be epistles indeed, study and identified of allmen. In a single respect at least they are a magnif-icent contrast to the custom so prevalent inJerusalem of backsheesh for all servicerendered. For the courtesy shown us theypositively refused to accept financial remu-neration. Mr. William H. Rudy gave usthe complete afternoon, guiding us to theMosque of Omar, to Solomons stables and

Text Appearing Right after Image:
JOSIAH MORRIS 149 quarries, the Pool of Bethescla, and else-where, and would not accept a penny. The Mosque of Omar is magnificence inthe highest sense of that word. There wasthe extremely rock on which Abraham laid Isaacwhen he was about to slay him in sacrifice.From it Mohammed is believed by the Mos-lems to have ascended to heaven. Herewe saw the Mohammedans at worship, amost exciting spectacle. They stood ina extended: row. and on signal from their leaderwould prostrate themselves to the ground,going via this service once again and once more,with a precision that was military in its ex-actness. When bowed with each other they resem-bled windrows of devotees, and even though wepitied them for their slavish adherence tothe forms of religious worship Ave admiredthem for their fidelity to conviction. My Quaker pal seemed impressed withall he saw, and was continuously watching forsomething to illustrate Scripture passages—with which he was so familiar, as to fill me 150 THE BOOK AND THE LAND with amazement

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USAF Thunderbirds at Travis AFB, July 2011

Image by Official Travis AFB, Calif.
The USAF Air Demonstration Squadron (&quotThunderbirds&quot) is the air demonstration squadron of the United States Air Force (USAF). The Thunderbirds are assigned to the 57th Wing, and are based at Nellis AFB, Nevada. The Thunderbirds carry out aerial demonstrations in the F-16C Fighting Falcon.
The Thunderbirds have the privilege and responsibility to perform for individuals all around the world, displaying the pride, precision and professionalism of American Airmen. In each and every hour-long demonstration, the group combines years of training and expertise with an attitude of excellence to showcase what the Air Force is all about. The sharply choreographed, drill-style ground ceremony kicks off the demonstration by showcasing the focus to detail and esprit de corps that defines our enlisted members. As the jets take to the skies and fly only a handful of feet from wingtip to wingtip, the crowd gets a glimpse of the awesome skills and capabilities that all fighter pilots should possess. The solo pilots integrate their personal loud and proud routine, exhibiting some of the maximum capabilities of the F-16 Fighting Falcon â the Air Forceâs premier multi-function fighter jet.
The squadron tours the United States and significantly of the world, performing aerobatic formation and solo flying in specially marked aircraft. The name is taken from the legendary creature that seems in the mythology of several indigenous North American cultures.
On 1 March 2013, the USAF announced that due to price range cuts, aerial demonstration team performances would cease indefinitely, successful 1 April 2013.

USAF Thunderbirds at Travis AFB, July 2011

Image by Official Travis AFB, Calif.
The USAF Air Demonstration Squadron (&quotThunderbirds&quot) is the air demonstration squadron of the United States Air Force (USAF). The Thunderbirds are assigned to the 57th Wing, and are based at Nellis AFB, Nevada. The Thunderbirds perform aerial demonstrations in the F-16C Fighting Falcon.
The Thunderbirds have the privilege and responsibility to perform for folks all around the planet, displaying the pride, precision and professionalism of American Airmen. In every single hour-lengthy demonstration, the group combines years of instruction and expertise with an attitude of excellence to showcase what the Air Force is all about. The sharply choreographed, drill-style ground ceremony kicks off the demonstration by showcasing the interest to detail and esprit de corps that defines our enlisted members. As the jets take to the skies and fly only a couple of feet from wingtip to wingtip, the crowd gets a glimpse of the amazing capabilities and capabilities that all fighter pilots should possess. The solo pilots integrate their personal loud and proud routine, exhibiting some of the maximum capabilities of the F-16 Fighting Falcon – the Air Force’s premier multi-part fighter jet.
The squadron tours the United States and significantly of the world, performing aerobatic formation and solo flying in specially marked aircraft. The name is taken from the legendary creature that appears in the mythology of many indigenous North American cultures.
On 1 March 2013, the USAF announced that due to price range cuts, aerial demonstration group performances would cease indefinitely, efficient 1 April 2013.

Slippery when wet

Slippery when wet

Some cool swiss turning photos:

Slippery when wet

Image by PeterThoeny
Thank you every person for visiting, commenting and fav’ing – extremely significantly appreciated! Press &quotL&quot for better view and &quotF&quot if you like it!

In summer time 2009 we walked via the Aar Gorge (Aareschlucht) in Switzerland. This is a section of the river Aar that carves through a limestone ridge close to the town of Meiringen. The gorge is an indirect item of glaciation – 10,000 years ago, just as the Ice Age was coming to an end, torrential runoff water from melting glaciers eroded a deep, narrow chasm by way of the limestone barrier. Despite the fact that barely a single mile long, this passage is bordered by sheer cliffs up to 50 m high on either side. (Ref. Wikipedia)

I wanted to convey the wet nature of the gorge, so I applied some inventive HDR post-processing to it. The image is based on a single shot with a point and shoot Sony camera – as you can see the river is overexposed due to higher dynamic range. Nevertheless, I think it turned out OK like this. What do you think?

HDR, 1 expoure, DSC-W1. DSC06431-2009-07-19_hdr1cre1c

no left turns

Image by gato-gato-gato

Image from web page 33 of “Germany” (1912)

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Identifier: germanypainted00dick
Title: Germany
Year: 1912 (1910s)
Authors: Dickie, James F., 1848- Compton, Edward Theodore, ill Compton, E. Harrison (Edward Harrison), ill
Subjects: Germany — Description and travel
Publisher: London : A. &amp C. Black
Contributing Library: University of California Libraries
Digitizing Sponsor: MSN

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and brought wealth and activity into whatused to be a sleepy old town. German workmenhave been attracted, and German enterprise hascreated a new city with fantastic factories, great bazaars,and splendid palaces. Thus a sturdy Germanpolitical influence makes itself manifest. It is truethe old French feeHng is nonetheless very persistent, anddies challenging even following forty years of Germanoccupation. The Royal Palace and the splendidUniversity buildings have added new beauties, andaided in creating a local pride even in the hearts ofthe most radical adherents of the French connection.New Strasburg is not an expansion of the old, butan entirely new development. Its aspect iscompletely changed, and it may possibly be mentioned to be anew city with only the Cathedral and the beautifulmediaeval Kommerzells house, which adorns theCathedral square, left as memorials of the oldentime. In the middle ages Strasburg had in its garrison STRASBURG One of the numerous canals in the old element of thetown. Cathedral in the distance.

Text Appearing Right after Image:
STRASBURG AND THE BLACK FOREST 9 numerous Swiss hired soldiers. An old folk-songsheds light on this ancient usage : At Strasburg on the extended lengthy bridge I stood upon a day,When southwards as I turned my eyes The mists lay thick and grey. Behind that veil of mist/ methought, In glorious radiance standThe Alps, with all their lofty peaks, In my Swiss Fatherland. As as a result I mused and thus I felt A youth came gradually by.Who played upon the Alpine horn Our loved property melody. Then, growing hot and cold by turns, I plunged into the flood,To breast the Rhine with stalwart arm And sweetly-tingling blood. Had not the sergeant spied me then. No ill had I to dree.They chased and caught me, And to-days the final of days for me. O masters mine, just inform me how Could I resist that contact ?The lad who played the Alpine horn— Just blame him for my fall. But lead me out beyond the gate Your fifteen paces set.And shoot like guys, But, ere ye do,^ my last want may I get. 1 It was the custom in ancient instances t

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Nice Turned Components Manufacturer images

Nice Turned Components Manufacturer images

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Championnat Européen de DRIFT – Bordeaux Mérignac Gironde 13 et 14 septembre 2014 – BMW M3 – Moteur Engine Puissance Power Car Speed Vitesse – Picture Image Photography – King of Europe KOE turbo oil huile frein brake transmission

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Bordeaux race track makes its return on the calendar with a very nice and curvy layout. France is a big motorsport nation and with this event running just 1 week before the final, it means all the best drivers will be in attendance on this demanding circuit.…
La M3 e30 en compétition
BMW M3 E30 en course.
BMW M3 E30 en DTM (ici lors du Essen Motor Show 2011).

Parmi les nombreux préparateurs qui la développèrent et l’engagèrent, l’équipe britannique PRODRIVE de David Richards, connu son heure de gloire avec cette voiture.

Elle gagna à 4 reprises la fameuse course d’endurance des 24 Heures de Spa (1987, 1988, 1990 et 1992).

En rallyes, elle remporta la première manche du championnat du monde à laquelle elle participa : le Tour de Corse 1987, entre les mains du français Bernard Béguin (avec plus de deux minutes d’avance sur son compatriote Yves Loubet). Avec la M3, Béguin fut vice-champion de France des rallyes en 1987 et 1988.

Toujours en rallye, citons aussi :

ses deux titres en Championnat de Belgique des rallyes (BRC): en 1988 avec Patrick Snijers, vice-champion d’Europe la même année et 1989 grâce à Marc Duez. ;

ses deux titres en Championnat de France des rallyes (CFR) : en 1989 et 1990 pour François Chatriot.

Courses sur glace : les deux victoires aux 24 heures sur glace de Chamonix en 1991 et 1992 avec Marcel Tarrès (2), Christian Debias (1) et B. Béguin (1) et les trois autres victoires de M. Tarrès -seul cette fois- à la Ronde de Serre Chevalier en 1991, 1992 (version 4×4) et 1993 (4×4) dans le cadre du Trophée Andros.

Au final, la M3 e30 remporta 16 victoires en CFR entre 1987 et 1990, 7 en BRC ,et 9 en ERC avec des pilotes français (6 avec des belges). Dans la foulée Pascal Thomasse obtint deux podiums en Championnat de France D2, en 1990 et 1994.

Elle était déclinée tant en version "Groupe N" qu’en "Groupe A".

Elle est à l’heure actuelle toujours utilisée par de nombreux pilotes amateurs, partout en Europe (entre’autres en Coupe de France des rallyes, où elle s’est imposée sans discontinuer entre 1990 et 1995, puis en 1998 (E30 et E36): Hugues Delage obtint les coupes 1990, 1993 et 1994, et Dominique de Meyer celle de l’année 1991 et la finale de 1995 (Christophe Lapierre vainqueur de la coupe 1992, et Patrick Rouillard de celle 1998 pour la dernière fois de l’évolution M3); au Liban Nabil Karam s’est imposé en 1991).

En Championnat d’Europe de course de côte, elle a remporté le titre de Catégorie I à cinq reprises consécutives avec Francis Dosières entre 1989 et 1993 (voiture homologuée Gr.A); s’en suivirent de nombreux autres titres toujours de Catégorie I pour les versions ultérieures de la M3 Gr.A, avec le tchèque Otakar Krámský (1995, 1997 et 1998), le croate Niko Pulić (1999, 2000 et 2001), le tchèque Robert Šenkýř (2003 et 2004) et l’allemand Jörg Weidinger (2005 et 2006), soit 15 titres de championne d’Europe entre 1989 et 2006. Le Challenge international de la montagne (FCHA) de la FIA ne lui a pas non plus échappé, avec le hongrois László Hernádi (2006, 2007 et 2008).

En Tourisme et Grand Tourisme, le titre mondial Tourisme 1987 (le seul attribué durant 18 ans) revint à l’italien Roberto Ravaglia (victoires de la M3 à Jarama, Dijon, aux 24 Heures de Spa, et à Silverstone), le Championnat d’Europe FIA des voitures de tourisme fut remporté en 1987 par Winfried Vogt (plus titre constructeurs) et en 1988 par Roberto Ravaglia, le Deutsche Tourenwagen Masters (D.T.M.) pilotes (Tourisme) fut gagné en 1987 par Eric van de Poele et en 1989 encore par Roberto Ravaglia (plus les titres constructeurs de 1987 à 1990), le BTCC (British Touring Cars Championship) le fut par deux fois avec Frank Sytner (1988) et Will Hoy (1991, et titre constructeur), le Championnat de France de Supertourisme le fut aussi par deux fois grâce à Jean-Pierre Malcher (1989 et 1990; plus Dayraut en 2001 sur la version Silhouette), et le titre national Belge Grand Tourisme 1996 revint à l’équipage Hubert/Hubert/Duez; la voiture remporta notamment les 24 Heures du Nürburgring en 1989 (avec Ravaglia), 1990, 1991 et 1992 (Duez alors lauréat), puis 1994, 1996 et 1997 (E36 pour les deux dernières dates), et les 24 Heures de Spa en 1987, 1988 (avec Ravaglia), 1990 et 1992.

Ravaglia a ainsi pu obtenir le WTCC (1987), l’ETCC (1988) et le DTM (1989) avec la M3. Dans la foulée il a aussi remporté le Campionato Italiano Superturismo en 1990 et 1991 (16 victoires en deux ans). Sa première grande victoire sur M3 avait été au Grand Prix automobile de Macao, en 1987.

M3 E36 (1992-1999)
M3 E36
Marque BMW
Années de production 1992-1999
Production 71 242 exemplaires
Classe Sportive, GT,
Moteur et transmission
Moteur(s) S50B30 (3.0l) / S50B32 (3 2 l)
Puissance maximale 210 kW soit 286 ch (3 l) et 236 kW soit 321 ch (3,2 l) ch
Couple maximal 350 Nm à 3 200 tr/min Nm
Transmission propulsion
Poids et performances
Poids à vide 1 460 kg pour la 3.0l et 1 474 kg pour la 3.2l kg
Vitesse maximale 290 km/h
Accélération 0 à 100 km/h en 5,4 s pour la 3.2l et 5,7 s à 6 s pour la 3.0l s
Consommation mixte Ville/route/mixte : 16,9 / 7,5 / 11,0 L/100 km
Châssis – Carrosserie
Carrosserie(s) coupé (2 portes), sedan (4 portes) et cabriolet (2 portes)
Suspensions Pseudo MacPherson avant/ multi bras arrière
Longueur 4 430 mm
Largeur 1 710 mm
Hauteur 1 340 mm
Chronologie des modèles
Précédent BMW M3 E30 BMW M3 E46 Suivant
modifier Consultez la documentation du modèle

La M3 E36, commercialisée à partir de 1992 n’a plus grand-chose à voir avec la version précédente : l’E30. En effet, d’un point de vue esthétique, la ligne est entièrement revue.

Mais c’est au niveau du moteur que la division "M" de BMW a effectué les plus gros changements : le 4 cylindres de l’E30 est remplacé par un 6 cylindres en ligne de 3 L et gagne ainsi, dans un premier temps, plus de 50 chevaux pour atteindre, sur la première version d’E36, 286 ch. D’autre modifications apparaissent en 1996 avec un 6 cylindres de 3,2 l équipé d’une épure binaire circulaire variable grâce au « vanos », qui lui confère un couple incroyable de 350 Nm. La puissance atteint les 321 ch accouplés à une boîte 6 vitesses, deuxième changement majeur de cette nouvelle version d’E36 M3. Elle a d’ailleurs été élue voiture du XXe siècle par le magazine Auto Plus, et voiture la plus maniable de l’époque par Car and Driver Magazine.

M3 E46 (2000-2006)
BMW M3 E46
Marque BMW
Années de production 2001-2006
Classe Sportives, GT
Moteur et transmission
Moteur(s) Essence 6 en ligne 3 246 cm3
Puissance maximale 3431 ch
Couple maximal 3652 Nm
Transmission Propulsion
Poids et performances
Poids à vide 1 4853 kg
Vitesse maximale 300 km/h
Accélération 0 à 100 km/h en 5,24 s
Consommation mixte 12.1 L/100 km
Émission de CO2 292 g/km
Châssis – Carrosserie
Carrosserie(s) Coupé et Cabriolet
Suspensions ???
Longueur 4 492 mm
Largeur 1 780 mm
Hauteur 1 370 mm
Chronologie des modèles
Précédent M3 E36 M3 E92 Suivant
modifier Consultez la documentation du modèle

La M3 E46 présente des attributs esthétiques évocateurs : ailes enflées, larges prise d’air, capot bosselé, petit becquet arrière, deux doubles sorties d’échappement, jantes 18" (19" en option), mais l’ensemble se veut haut de gamme et plutôt raffiné. À bord, en revanche, rien de neuf, la M3 se démarque très peu d’un coupé Série 3. Au niveau du moteur, elle possède une mécanique bien peu ordinaire. En effet, le six-cylindres 3,2 L de la version précédente est reconduit mais a gagné 45 cm3, 22 ch et 1,3 mkg de couple, obtenus 1 650 tr/min plus haut. Avec un rendement exceptionnel de 106 ch/litre, ce bloc vient rejoindre le podium des meilleurs « atmos » du moment, juste derrière la Honda S2000 et la Ferrari 360 Modena. Au-delà des chiffres, la disponibilité de cette mécanique sur une large plage d’utilisation réjouit tout autant que sa sonorité sportive à souhait. Un bouton "sport" au tableau de bord améliore la réponse des injecteurs et permet une conduite encore plus active. Au tableau de bord, un compte-tours "thermostatique" vous aide à prendre soin du bijou. Moteur froid, des diodes orange ponctuent chaque 500 tr/min à partir de 4 000 tr/min. Elles s’éteignent ensuite une à une quand le moteur monte en température. Avec ses 343 ch, elle effectue le 0 à 100 km/h en 5"25, 80 à 120 en 5"4 (en 4e). Cette nouvelle version ne fait pas beaucoup mieux que la précédente car elle a grossi et son rapport poids/puissance reste donc inchangé. Niveau consommation, la M3 E46 consomme 11,5 L/100 km, mais peut consommer jusqu’à 60 L/100 km en activant régulièrement le bouton "sport" sur le tableau de bord. En ce qui concerne le freinage, talon d’Achille des BMW M, comme sur l’ancienne version, les quatre grands disques sont suffisants en temps normal, mais leur efficacité est rapidement mise à mal en rythme soutenu pour stopper les 1 500 kg de cette sportive. La M3 E46 perpétue avec brio la réputation liée à son nom. Plus facile et abordable qu’auparavant, elle conserve un rapport prix/performances avantageux.

M3 E90/E92 (2007-2013)
BMW M3 (E92)
Marque BMW
Années de production 2007-2012
Classe Sportive, GT
Moteur et transmission
Moteur(s) Essence V8 4,0 l
Puissance maximale 309 kW soit 420 ch
Couple maximal 400 Nm
Transmission Manuelle 6 rapports
Poids et performances
Poids à vide 1 655 kg
Vitesse maximale 310 km/h
Accélération 0 à 100 km/h en 4,8 s
Consommation mixte 12,76 L/100 km
Émission de CO2 287 à 2927 g/km
Châssis – Carrosserie
Carrosserie(s) coupé 2 portes, berline 4 portes et cabriolet
Suspensions Ressorts hélicoïdaux
amortisseurs à gaz
barre antiroulis
Longueur 4 620 mm
Largeur 1 800 mm
Hauteur 1 420 mm
Chronologie des modèles
Précédent BMW M3 E46 BMW M4 F32 Suivant
modifier Consultez la documentation du modèle

Cette génération de BMW M3 se positionne comme la rivale de l’Audi RS4 (pour la E90) et de l’audi RS5 (pour la E92), mais aussi de la Mercedes C63 AMG

S’offrant pour la première fois un moteur à 8 cylindres en V de série, installé en position centrale avant, cette quatrième génération de M3 développe 420 ch à 8 300 tr/min et abat ainsi le 0 à 100 km/h en 4,8 s. Constitué d’un bloc en alliage d’aluminium et de silicium, le moteur de la BMW M3 affiche une puissance spécifique de 105 ch par litre de cylindrée. Son couple maximum atteint les 400 Nm à 3 900 tr/min, dont 85 % délivré sur une plage de plus de 6 500 tr/min. La M3 se dote en effet d’une distribution variable de 8 papillons de gaz et d’un alternateur débrayable.
Séries limitées

En novembre 2009, BMW lance la M3 GTS limitée à 250 exemplaires. Sur le plan des performances, elle garde son V8 dont la puissance a été amenée à 450 ch. Sur le plan de l’esthétique, elle se pare d’une couleur orange exclusive avec un aileron typé course. À l’intérieur, BMW adapte la recette qui a fait le succès de la Porsche 911 GT3 RS : pas de GPS, ni de climatisation et des lanières en guise de poignées de portes. Enfin, le coupé perd ses deux places à l’arrière, et les remplace par un arceau-cage couleur carrosserie, un extincteur de course, donnant l’impression qu’il s’agit plus d’une bête de course qu’une voiture de tous les jours. Elle est d’ailleurs souvent comparée à la BMW M3 GTR E46.

L’année suivante, BMW dévoile la M3 Frozen Gray. Produite à seulement trente exemplaires, et seulement aux États-Unis, elle se reconnaît par sa teinte grise matte (référencée comme Frozen Gray chez BMW), ses jantes 19 pouces à l’extérieur, et son cuir bi-ton roux et noir à l’intérieur. Le moteur conserve ses 420 chevaux, mais la boîte DCT à double embrayage est fournie de série. Tout acheteur de cette Frozen Gray se verra offrir un stage de la BMW Performance Driving School.

En juin 2011, un modèle encore plus exclusif la CRT (pour Carbon Racing Technology), basé sur la M3 Saloon E90 fait la part belle au carbone, permettant la perte de 45 kg, le tout en gardant les équipements de confort (GPS et climatisation) qui font d’elle une berline de luxe. Elle est produite à seulement 67 exemplaires, le moteur garde ses 420 chevaux, mais il s’agit de la première édition spéciale de la M3 qui n’est disponible qu’en berline 4 portes. Toutefois, il faut noter qu’à l’arrière, ce ne sont plus trois personnes, mais deux personnes qui pourront s’y asseoir, dans deux beaux sièges baquets. Elle se reconnaît par sa teinte grise matte son cuir rouge, et ses jantes Full Black.

En 2012, BMW sort 3 séries spéciales de sa M3 en France. La M3 CS, la M3 Frozen 40 et la M3 DTM Champion Edition. La M3 CS, exclusivement française, se distingue par une teinte bleue matte éclatante (Frozen Blau), ainsi que par son intérieur aux surpiqûres bleues, avec une touche de rouge sur le volant. Il s’agit d’une version dépouillée, spécialement destinée aux virées sur circuit. La M3 Frozen 40, elle, a été créée pour toute l’Europe, et célébrait les 40 ans de BMW Motorsport. Elle se distingue à l’extérieur d’une M3 « normale » grâce à une calandre chromée, ainsi que des sorties d’échappement et des ouïes latérales noires. La version Frozen 40 dispose aussi de 4 coloris spécifiques mats, toutes nommées Frozen, que ce soit en bleu, bleu foncé, blanc ou rouge. À l’intérieur, la sellerie est exclusive, et les surpiqûres sont assorties à la teinte extérieure. Enfin, la version M3 DTM Champion Edition est un hommage à Bruno Spengler, le pilote canadien victorieux du championnat allemand DTM sur BMW M3. Elle est très facilement reconnaissable, grâce à sa teinte matte Frozen Black, ses bandes de pavillon aux couleurs de Motorsport, ainsi que le sticker sponsor sur la vitre de custode. Les jantes full black rajoutent une touche d’agressivité à la voiture. À l’intérieur, les inserts en carbone reçoivent la signature de Bruno Spengler, ainsi qu’une numérotation. Seulement 54 exemplaires seront produits.

The BMW M3 is a high-performance version of the BMW 3-Series, developed by BMW’s in-house motorsport division, BMW M. M3 models have been derived from the E30, E36, E46, E90/E92/E93, and F30 3-series, and sold with coupe, saloon and convertible body styles. Upgrades over the "standard" 3-Series automobiles include more powerful and responsive engines, improved handling/suspension/braking systems, aerodynamic body enhancements, and interior/exterior accents with the tri-colour "M" (Motorsport) emblem. The last M3 coupe was produced in Germany on 5 July 2013. Part of BMW’s renumbering to move the 3-Series coupe and convertible to the 4-Series, the M3 name will remain with the saloon version as the coupe version has ceased production and has been replaced by the M4 Coupe starting with the 2015 model year.

E92 M3 ZCP Competition Package

For 2011, BMW added the ZCP Competition Package to the M3’s lineup. Unlike the ZCP offered on the previous generation E46, the newest package didn’t change very much about the E92. Most of the adjustments were made to suspension components and the computer governing stability control. The changes for the E92 ZCP are as follows:

– The suspension has been lowered by 10mm. The spring rates are the same, but the springs themselves are shorter, to compensate for the shorter stance. The suspension’s shock damping was also adjusted by the M division. This was in order to compensate for the lower ride height, primarily for rebounding damping rates as opposed to actual compression.

– The Electronic Damper Control in the “Sport Mode” has been modified. A quote taken from the Manager of BMWNA’s M Division, Larry Koch: “The Sport Mode before ZCP was locked at 75% of the way to full stiff. It still has that as a default, but is now variable like the ‘Comfort’ and ‘Normal’ modes.” This translates to a stiffer ride whilst sport mode is engaged, aiding heavy cornering on a track at a cost to ride comfort when driving normally on the road.

– Modifications have been made to the computer governing the Dynamic Stability Control (DSC) in M Dynamic Mode. It is reworked and renamed to “Dynamic Traction Control” (DTC) which allows for larger angles of slip in heavy cornering. This translates to the rear end sliding out further than would be allowed on a non-ZCP M3 before the DTC kicks in to stop the tail slide. Also, once the DTC does kick in, instead of cutting power to the wheels in order to correct the slide (which is normal for the DSC on stock M3s), the DTC computer instead applies the brakes to individual wheels in order to keep the car from spinning excessively.

– In addition, forged 19 inch wheels in the same style as those on the E46 CSL are added to the car.
E92 M3 GTS
M3 GTS at the Autosport International Show 2011.

BMW announced the M3 GTS in November 2009. The car is powered by a 4.4-litre V8 based on the 4.0-litre engine found in the standard M3, which produces a maximum of 450 PS (331 kW; 444 hp). The car weighs 300 pounds less than the standard M3 due to various weight savings. A total of only 250 units were produced. This can accelerate from 0-62 mph in just 4.3 seconds and 0-100 mph in 8.5 seconds. In Germany deliveries began in May 2010 while other countries were scheduled for the summer of 2010. The BMW E92 M3 GTS was priced at around €115,000 per unit. All E92 M3 GTS models have been sold.
E90 M3 CRT

The M3 CRT (Carbon Racing Technology) was announced in June 2011 as a 2012 model. It is powered by the same engine as the GTS, but in opposite to the GTS coupe with roll cage and 4-point harnesses, the CRT is a saloon with navigation, high-end sound system etc. as standard equipment. Despite these luxury extras, the car still weighs 100 lb (45 kg) less than a regular M3 saloon. Compared to a saloon with the same luxury equipment, it weighs 155 lb (70 kg) less. The production will be limited to 67 cars, all numbered with a plaque on the dashboard. And it is claimed that it can accelerate from 0 to 62 mph (100 km/h) in just 4.4 seconds.
E92 M3 DTM Champion Edition

BMW Motorsport returned to the DTM in 2012, and the "DTM Champion Edition" was built to commemorate it winning the championship. The "DTM Champion Edition" was available only in the Frozen Black paint finish with the same M stripes over the roof and boot lid as on Bruno Spengler’s race car. It also incorporated visual clues to the race car, such as carbon flaps and gurney, dark chrome elements and matt black wheels. The interior had some exclusive parts such as interior trim in carbon fibre, Alcantara steering wheel and "M Power" embroidered on the handbrake grip. Each car had a numbered plaque with Spengler’s signature and the text "DTM champion 2012" above the glove box.

As the car was focused on high performance, options as M Drive, M DCT Drivelogic and the M Driver’s Package were fitted as standard equipment. For the car to have everyday usability, options as navigation system, heated seats and PDC were also standard.

The DTM Champion Edition was produced from February 2013, in a limited number of 54 cars, the same number as BMW’s victories in DTM. In Germany, the price started at €99,000.00 including VAT.
E92 M3 Lime Rock Park Edition

The M3 Lime Rock Park Edition was a US specific model, with a production limited to 200 cars, painted in Fire Orange. All 200 of these 2013 vehicles came with carbon fiber performance parts, such as roof, front splitter, rear spoiler, competition package, a lowered ride height in front of .60 inches, track style steering with fewer turns to lock and a lightweight muffler, courtesy of BMW’s MGmbh division. BMW claims the model has no added horsepower, however, when marketing the lightweight Inconel-titanium BMW Motorsports Exhaust to stock M3 vehicles, BMW Claims that the system adds about 5 H.P. The Lime Rock Park editions were equipped with either 6 speed transmissions, or the optional DCT (Dual Clutch Transmission). No changes made to the original 4.0L V8 (414 HP, redline 8300 rpm); however the ECU is programmed slightly differently from standard M3 vehicles with less interference from the dynamic stability control and a less interfering traction control. Each LRP edition’s governor is limited for achieving its natural top speed, which is claimed to be 187 MPH (Roughly 300 kph). Each M3 LRP Edition comes with a numbered plaque and paper certificate, each one reading "One of 200" instead of a numbering sequence. BMW did this to ensure none of the cars were worth more than another.
Rahal Letterman M3 GT2 racing at the 2009 Petit Le Mans
Schnitzer Motorsport’s BMW M3 GT2 racing at the 2010 1000 km of Zhuhai.
E92 M3 GT2

BMW Motorsport announced in February 2008 that Rahal Letterman Racing will campaign two factory-backed E92 M3s in the American Le Mans Series in 2009, following a two-year absence by the brand. The cars are homologated for the GT2 category. This was the cover car for the simulation racing game Need for Speed: Shift. Schnitzer Motorsport entered 2 cars at the 1000 km of Spa and finished 4th after a move by the Ferrari in the final corner. For 2010, BMW Motorsport has been granted entry in the 2010 24 Hours of Le Mans and in the 2010 24 Hours Nürburgring. BMW Motorsport/Schnitzer Motorsport went onto to take an overall win at the 24 Hours Nürburgring with the #25 M3 GT2 of Jörg Müller, Augusto Farfus, Pedro Lamy, and Uwe Alzen while the top competitors from Porsche and Audi dropped out one by one. In addition, one of the M3 GT2’s that competed at Le Mans (#79) has been chosen as the 17th BMW Art Car, which will be done by American artist, Jeff Koons. At the 2010 24 Hours of Spa, BMW qualified 1st in class (2nd overall) and maintained 1st with the #79 car throughout the race until it succumbed to a suspension failure with just half an hour remaining, forcing them to give the overall lead to two Porsche 997 GT3-RSRs. The M3s still came 1st in the GTN class. The BMW M3s won the GT2 category in the ILMC 1000 km of Zhuhai. In 2011, the BMW achieved a 1-2 finish in the 12 Hours of Sebring. In the 2011 American Le Mans Series GT class, BMW Team RLL swept all categories, winning the GT manufacturer, team and driver championships. They contest another year in the ALMS GT class, coming off of another fantastic win at the 2012 60th running of the 12 Hours of Sebring. The M3 GT2 was succeeded by the BMW Z4 GTE, an LMGTE specification racing car alongside the Group GT3 spec BMW Z4 GT3. The Z4 GTE started racing at the 2013 12 Hours of Sebring.
E92 M3 GT4

On 10 April 2009, the week after the debut of the GT4, BMW’s Customer Racing program announced it had partnered with Schubert Motorsport (sponsored by Motorsport Arena Oschersleben) to run the BMW M3 GT4 in the 2009 24 Hours Nürburgring race, in the new class for GT4 cars, listed as SP10 there. The BMW M3 GT4 also raced in the Nürburgring VLN ADAC Westfalenfahrt in April 2009, taking the win in the SP10 class and finishing 30th overall. The 2009 24h race took place on the weekend of 23 and 24 May, with Jörg Müller, Andy Priaulx and sport auto journalist Jochen Übler at the wheel. Despite qualifying as best SP10/GT4 car at 57th overall and being at least 10 seconds per lap faster, the team finished third in the class, behind two Aston Martin V8 Vantage N24. The overall rank was 47th.

BMW Motorsport announced on 7 July 2009 the launch of a line of BMW M3 race cars which meet the SRO/FIA’s GT4 spec and are oriented for sale to private teams and drivers. The BMW M3 GT4 price is 121,500 EUR without VAT. While BMW states that ‘the BMW M3 GT4 weighs just 1,430 kilograms’ and the ‘420 bhp engine remained largely untouched’, the 2010 24 Hours Nürburgring "Balance of Performance" requires that the power must not exceed 390 PS (385 HP), while the minimum weight is set to 1400 kg.

The M3 GT4 is offered in Europe as a homologated production race car for sale to the general public. According to Larry Koch, then BMW NA M-brand manager, a feasibility study is currently being conducted to evaluate the possible sale of the M3 GT4 in North America. However, without a sanctioned GT4-class racing series in the USA, the sale of the M3 GT4 in the States is not likely.
Critical reception

Arthur St. Antoine of Motor Trend magazine says: "World’s single greatest car? Seriously? Yes – the new BMW M3 is unquestionably a contender. Probably no other car combines so many virtues – speed, handling, good looks, roominess, practicality – into one package. Driving the new BMW M3 is an absolutely blissful experience, flooding your brain with dopamine as if you were arriving to courtside seats at the Lakers game with Jennifer Connelly on your arm." -and- "If you put an F1 car and a premium sedan in a blender, the M3 would be the cocktail that pours out. Mmmm, nothing else like it. A toast then: To the BMW M3, the greatest all-around car in the world."
Mark Gillies of Car and Driver magazine says: "A car has got to be pretty spectacular to win over the curmudgeons here at 1585 Eisenhower Place, especially when familiarity sets in over the course of 40,000 miles. But our Sparkling Graphite Metallic M3 did indeed win us over.", and "Based on our experience, the current M3 is the world’s all-around best car for the money, although several staffers would have preferred to trade some of the coupe’s looks for the added practicality of the sedan.", and "This is the finest car on the market, period."
Ezra Dyer of Automobile magazine once suggested that "…car magazines generally regard the M3 the same way a four-year-old regards Santa Claus."
Jeremy Clarkson of BBC television show Top Gear says: "This [The M3] is the best car, and always will be, and there’s no point in ever thinking otherwise."
Mark Magrath of Edmunds Inside Line wrote these comments after driving a 2009 E90 M3 saloon in the canyons of Southern California: "This is the best most complete car in the world. It’s actually a bargain for what you get. Wow."
In the high-performance sports luxury niche (an entry-level luxury/compact executive car with a V8 engine), the E90 M3 (usually an E92 M3 Coupé being tested) has won comparison tests against rivals such as the Mercedes-Benz C63 AMG, Lexus IS-F, Audi RS4, Audi RS5 and Cadillac CTS-V.

Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center: P-40 Warhawk & F-4 Corsair hanging over the SR-71 Blackbird, among others

Image by Chris Devers
Quoting Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum | Curtiss P-40E Warhawk (Kittyhawk IA):

Whether known as the Warhawk, Tomahawk, or Kittyhawk, the Curtiss P-40 proved to be a successful, versatile fighter during the first half of World War II. The shark-mouthed Tomahawks that Gen. Claire Chennault’s "Flying Tigers" flew in China against the Japanese remain among the most popular airplanes of the war. P-40E pilot Lt. Boyd D. Wagner became the first American ace of World War II when he shot down six Japanese aircraft in the Philippines in mid-December 1941.

Curtiss-Wright built this airplane as Model 87-A3 and delivered it to Canada as a Kittyhawk I in 1941. It served until 1946 in No. 111 Squadron, Royal Canadian Air Force. U.S. Air Force personnel at Andrews Air Force Base restored it in 1975 to represent an aircraft of the 75th Fighter Squadron, 23rd Fighter Group, 14th Air Force.

Donated by the Exchange Club in Memory of Kellis Forbes.

Curtiss Aircraft Company


Country of Origin:
United States of America

Overall: 330 x 970cm, 2686kg, 1140cm (10ft 9 15/16in. x 31ft 9 7/8in., 5921.6lb., 37ft 4 13/16in.)

All-metal, semi-monocoque

Physical Description:
Single engine, single seat, fighter aircraft.

• • • • •

See more photos of this, and the Wikipedia article.

Details, quoting from Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum | Lockheed SR-71 Blackbird:

No reconnaissance aircraft in history has operated globally in more hostile airspace or with such complete impunity than the SR-71, the world’s fastest jet-propelled aircraft. The Blackbird’s performance and operational achievements placed it at the pinnacle of aviation technology developments during the Cold War.

This Blackbird accrued about 2,800 hours of flight time during 24 years of active service with the U.S. Air Force. On its last flight, March 6, 1990, Lt. Col. Ed Yielding and Lt. Col. Joseph Vida set a speed record by flying from Los Angeles to Washington, D.C., in 1 hour, 4 minutes, and 20 seconds, averaging 3,418 kilometers (2,124 miles) per hour. At the flight’s conclusion, they landed at Washington-Dulles International Airport and turned the airplane over to the Smithsonian.

Transferred from the United States Air Force.

Lockheed Aircraft Corporation

Clarence L. "Kelly" Johnson


Country of Origin:
United States of America

Overall: 18ft 5 15/16in. x 55ft 7in. x 107ft 5in., 169998.5lb. (5.638m x 16.942m x 32.741m, 77110.8kg)
Other: 18ft 5 15/16in. x 107ft 5in. x 55ft 7in. (5.638m x 32.741m x 16.942m)


Physical Description:
Twin-engine, two-seat, supersonic strategic reconnaissance aircraft; airframe constructed largley of titanium and its alloys; vertical tail fins are constructed of a composite (laminated plastic-type material) to reduce radar cross-section; Pratt and Whitney J58 (JT11D-20B) turbojet engines feature large inlet shock cones.

• • • • •

Quoting Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum | Vought F4U-1D Corsair :

By V-J Day, September 2, 1945, Corsair pilots had amassed an 11:1 kill ratio against enemy aircraft. The aircraft’s distinctive inverted gull-wing design allowed ground clearance for the huge, three-bladed Hamilton Standard Hydromatic propeller, which spanned more than 4 meters (13 feet). The Pratt and Whitney R-2800 radial engine and Hydromatic propeller was the largest and one of the most powerful engine-propeller combinations ever flown on a fighter aircraft.

Charles Lindbergh flew bombing missions in a Corsair with Marine Air Group 31 against Japanese strongholds in the Pacific in 1944. This airplane is painted in the colors and markings of the Corsair Sun Setter, a Marine close-support fighter assigned to the USS Essex in July 1944.

Transferred from the United States Navy.

Vought Aircraft Company


Country of Origin:
United States of America

Overall: 460 x 1020cm, 4037kg, 1250cm (15ft 1 1/8in. x 33ft 5 9/16in., 8900lb., 41ft 1/8in.)

All metal with fabric-covered wings behind the main spar.

Physical Description:
R-2800 radial air-cooled engine with 1,850 horsepower, turned a three-blade Hamilton Standard Hydromatic propeller with solid aluminum blades spanning 13 feet 1 inch; wing bent gull-shaped on both sides of the fuselage.