Championnat Européen de DRIFT – Bordeaux Mérignac Gironde 13 et 14 septembre 2014 – BMW M3 – Moteur Engine Puissance Energy Car Speed Vitesse – Image Image Photography – King of Europe KOE turbo oil huile frein brake transmission www.supercar-roadtrip.fr

Championnat Européen de DRIFT – Bordeaux Mérignac Gironde 13 et 14 septembre 2014 – BMW M3 – Moteur Engine Puissance Energy Car Speed Vitesse – Image Image Photography – King of Europe KOE turbo oil huile frein brake transmission www.supercar-roadtrip.fr

Some cool turned parts manufacturers images:

Championnat Européen de DRIFT – Bordeaux Mérignac Gironde 13 et 14 septembre 2014 – BMW M3 – Moteur Engine Puissance Power Car Speed Vitesse – Picture Image Photography – King of Europe KOE turbo oil huile frein brake transmission www.supercar-roadtrip.fr

Image by SuperCar-RoadTrip.fr
Bordeaux race track makes its return on the calendar with a very nice and curvy layout. France is a big motorsport nation and with this event running just 1 week before the final, it means all the best drivers will be in attendance on this demanding circuit.
www.kingofeurope.net/2014b/index.php/component/ohanah/pro…

www.supercar-roadtrip.fr/
La M3 e30 en compétition
BMW M3 E30 en course.
BMW M3 E30 en DTM (ici lors du Essen Motor Show 2011).

Parmi les nombreux préparateurs qui la développèrent et l’engagèrent, l’équipe britannique PRODRIVE de David Richards, connu son heure de gloire avec cette voiture.

Elle gagna à 4 reprises la fameuse course d’endurance des 24 Heures de Spa (1987, 1988, 1990 et 1992).

En rallyes, elle remporta la première manche du championnat du monde à laquelle elle participa : le Tour de Corse 1987, entre les mains du français Bernard Béguin (avec plus de deux minutes d’avance sur son compatriote Yves Loubet). Avec la M3, Béguin fut vice-champion de France des rallyes en 1987 et 1988.

Toujours en rallye, citons aussi :

ses deux titres en Championnat de Belgique des rallyes (BRC): en 1988 avec Patrick Snijers, vice-champion d’Europe la même année et 1989 grâce à Marc Duez. ;

ses deux titres en Championnat de France des rallyes (CFR) : en 1989 et 1990 pour François Chatriot.

Courses sur glace : les deux victoires aux 24 heures sur glace de Chamonix en 1991 et 1992 avec Marcel Tarrès (2), Christian Debias (1) et B. Béguin (1) et les trois autres victoires de M. Tarrès -seul cette fois- à la Ronde de Serre Chevalier en 1991, 1992 (version 4×4) et 1993 (4×4) dans le cadre du Trophée Andros.

Au final, la M3 e30 remporta 16 victoires en CFR entre 1987 et 1990, 7 en BRC ,et 9 en ERC avec des pilotes français (6 avec des belges). Dans la foulée Pascal Thomasse obtint deux podiums en Championnat de France D2, en 1990 et 1994.

Elle était déclinée tant en version "Groupe N" qu’en "Groupe A".

Elle est à l’heure actuelle toujours utilisée par de nombreux pilotes amateurs, partout en Europe (entre’autres en Coupe de France des rallyes, où elle s’est imposée sans discontinuer entre 1990 et 1995, puis en 1998 (E30 et E36): Hugues Delage obtint les coupes 1990, 1993 et 1994, et Dominique de Meyer celle de l’année 1991 et la finale de 1995 (Christophe Lapierre vainqueur de la coupe 1992, et Patrick Rouillard de celle 1998 pour la dernière fois de l’évolution M3); au Liban Nabil Karam s’est imposé en 1991).

En Championnat d’Europe de course de côte, elle a remporté le titre de Catégorie I à cinq reprises consécutives avec Francis Dosières entre 1989 et 1993 (voiture homologuée Gr.A); s’en suivirent de nombreux autres titres toujours de Catégorie I pour les versions ultérieures de la M3 Gr.A, avec le tchèque Otakar Krámský (1995, 1997 et 1998), le croate Niko Pulić (1999, 2000 et 2001), le tchèque Robert Šenkýř (2003 et 2004) et l’allemand Jörg Weidinger (2005 et 2006), soit 15 titres de championne d’Europe entre 1989 et 2006. Le Challenge international de la montagne (FCHA) de la FIA ne lui a pas non plus échappé, avec le hongrois László Hernádi (2006, 2007 et 2008).

En Tourisme et Grand Tourisme, le titre mondial Tourisme 1987 (le seul attribué durant 18 ans) revint à l’italien Roberto Ravaglia (victoires de la M3 à Jarama, Dijon, aux 24 Heures de Spa, et à Silverstone), le Championnat d’Europe FIA des voitures de tourisme fut remporté en 1987 par Winfried Vogt (plus titre constructeurs) et en 1988 par Roberto Ravaglia, le Deutsche Tourenwagen Masters (D.T.M.) pilotes (Tourisme) fut gagné en 1987 par Eric van de Poele et en 1989 encore par Roberto Ravaglia (plus les titres constructeurs de 1987 à 1990), le BTCC (British Touring Cars Championship) le fut par deux fois avec Frank Sytner (1988) et Will Hoy (1991, et titre constructeur), le Championnat de France de Supertourisme le fut aussi par deux fois grâce à Jean-Pierre Malcher (1989 et 1990; plus Dayraut en 2001 sur la version Silhouette), et le titre national Belge Grand Tourisme 1996 revint à l’équipage Hubert/Hubert/Duez; la voiture remporta notamment les 24 Heures du Nürburgring en 1989 (avec Ravaglia), 1990, 1991 et 1992 (Duez alors lauréat), puis 1994, 1996 et 1997 (E36 pour les deux dernières dates), et les 24 Heures de Spa en 1987, 1988 (avec Ravaglia), 1990 et 1992.

Ravaglia a ainsi pu obtenir le WTCC (1987), l’ETCC (1988) et le DTM (1989) avec la M3. Dans la foulée il a aussi remporté le Campionato Italiano Superturismo en 1990 et 1991 (16 victoires en deux ans). Sa première grande victoire sur M3 avait été au Grand Prix automobile de Macao, en 1987.

M3 E36 (1992-1999)
M3 E36
BMW M3
Marque BMW
Années de production 1992-1999
Production 71 242 exemplaires
Classe Sportive, GT,
Moteur et transmission
Moteur(s) S50B30 (3.0l) / S50B32 (3 2 l)
Puissance maximale 210 kW soit 286 ch (3 l) et 236 kW soit 321 ch (3,2 l) ch
Couple maximal 350 Nm à 3 200 tr/min Nm
Transmission propulsion
Poids et performances
Poids à vide 1 460 kg pour la 3.0l et 1 474 kg pour la 3.2l kg
Vitesse maximale 290 km/h
Accélération 0 à 100 km/h en 5,4 s pour la 3.2l et 5,7 s à 6 s pour la 3.0l s
Consommation mixte Ville/route/mixte : 16,9 / 7,5 / 11,0 L/100 km
Châssis – Carrosserie
Carrosserie(s) coupé (2 portes), sedan (4 portes) et cabriolet (2 portes)
Suspensions Pseudo MacPherson avant/ multi bras arrière
Dimensions
Longueur 4 430 mm
Largeur 1 710 mm
Hauteur 1 340 mm
Chronologie des modèles
Précédent BMW M3 E30 BMW M3 E46 Suivant
modifier Consultez la documentation du modèle

La M3 E36, commercialisée à partir de 1992 n’a plus grand-chose à voir avec la version précédente : l’E30. En effet, d’un point de vue esthétique, la ligne est entièrement revue.

Mais c’est au niveau du moteur que la division "M" de BMW a effectué les plus gros changements : le 4 cylindres de l’E30 est remplacé par un 6 cylindres en ligne de 3 L et gagne ainsi, dans un premier temps, plus de 50 chevaux pour atteindre, sur la première version d’E36, 286 ch. D’autre modifications apparaissent en 1996 avec un 6 cylindres de 3,2 l équipé d’une épure binaire circulaire variable grâce au « vanos », qui lui confère un couple incroyable de 350 Nm. La puissance atteint les 321 ch accouplés à une boîte 6 vitesses, deuxième changement majeur de cette nouvelle version d’E36 M3. Elle a d’ailleurs été élue voiture du XXe siècle par le magazine Auto Plus, et voiture la plus maniable de l’époque par Car and Driver Magazine.

M3 E46 (2000-2006)
BMW M3 E46
BMW M3
Marque BMW
Années de production 2001-2006
Classe Sportives, GT
Moteur et transmission
Moteur(s) Essence 6 en ligne 3 246 cm3
Puissance maximale 3431 ch
Couple maximal 3652 Nm
Transmission Propulsion
Poids et performances
Poids à vide 1 4853 kg
Vitesse maximale 300 km/h
Accélération 0 à 100 km/h en 5,24 s
Consommation mixte 12.1 L/100 km
Émission de CO2 292 g/km
Châssis – Carrosserie
Carrosserie(s) Coupé et Cabriolet
Suspensions ???
Dimensions
Longueur 4 492 mm
Largeur 1 780 mm
Hauteur 1 370 mm
Chronologie des modèles
Précédent M3 E36 M3 E92 Suivant
modifier Consultez la documentation du modèle

La M3 E46 présente des attributs esthétiques évocateurs : ailes enflées, larges prise d’air, capot bosselé, petit becquet arrière, deux doubles sorties d’échappement, jantes 18" (19" en option), mais l’ensemble se veut haut de gamme et plutôt raffiné. À bord, en revanche, rien de neuf, la M3 se démarque très peu d’un coupé Série 3. Au niveau du moteur, elle possède une mécanique bien peu ordinaire. En effet, le six-cylindres 3,2 L de la version précédente est reconduit mais a gagné 45 cm3, 22 ch et 1,3 mkg de couple, obtenus 1 650 tr/min plus haut. Avec un rendement exceptionnel de 106 ch/litre, ce bloc vient rejoindre le podium des meilleurs « atmos » du moment, juste derrière la Honda S2000 et la Ferrari 360 Modena. Au-delà des chiffres, la disponibilité de cette mécanique sur une large plage d’utilisation réjouit tout autant que sa sonorité sportive à souhait. Un bouton "sport" au tableau de bord améliore la réponse des injecteurs et permet une conduite encore plus active. Au tableau de bord, un compte-tours "thermostatique" vous aide à prendre soin du bijou. Moteur froid, des diodes orange ponctuent chaque 500 tr/min à partir de 4 000 tr/min. Elles s’éteignent ensuite une à une quand le moteur monte en température. Avec ses 343 ch, elle effectue le 0 à 100 km/h en 5"25, 80 à 120 en 5"4 (en 4e). Cette nouvelle version ne fait pas beaucoup mieux que la précédente car elle a grossi et son rapport poids/puissance reste donc inchangé. Niveau consommation, la M3 E46 consomme 11,5 L/100 km, mais peut consommer jusqu’à 60 L/100 km en activant régulièrement le bouton "sport" sur le tableau de bord. En ce qui concerne le freinage, talon d’Achille des BMW M, comme sur l’ancienne version, les quatre grands disques sont suffisants en temps normal, mais leur efficacité est rapidement mise à mal en rythme soutenu pour stopper les 1 500 kg de cette sportive. La M3 E46 perpétue avec brio la réputation liée à son nom. Plus facile et abordable qu’auparavant, elle conserve un rapport prix/performances avantageux.

M3 E90/E92 (2007-2013)
BMW M3 (E92)
BMW M3
Marque BMW
Années de production 2007-2012
Classe Sportive, GT
Moteur et transmission
Moteur(s) Essence V8 4,0 l
Puissance maximale 309 kW soit 420 ch
Couple maximal 400 Nm
Transmission Manuelle 6 rapports
Propulsion
Poids et performances
Poids à vide 1 655 kg
Vitesse maximale 310 km/h
Accélération 0 à 100 km/h en 4,8 s
Consommation mixte 12,76 L/100 km
Émission de CO2 287 à 2927 g/km
Châssis – Carrosserie
Carrosserie(s) coupé 2 portes, berline 4 portes et cabriolet
Suspensions Ressorts hélicoïdaux
amortisseurs à gaz
barre antiroulis
Dimensions
Longueur 4 620 mm
Largeur 1 800 mm
Hauteur 1 420 mm
Chronologie des modèles
Précédent BMW M3 E46 BMW M4 F32 Suivant
modifier Consultez la documentation du modèle

Cette génération de BMW M3 se positionne comme la rivale de l’Audi RS4 (pour la E90) et de l’audi RS5 (pour la E92), mais aussi de la Mercedes C63 AMG
Performances

S’offrant pour la première fois un moteur à 8 cylindres en V de série, installé en position centrale avant, cette quatrième génération de M3 développe 420 ch à 8 300 tr/min et abat ainsi le 0 à 100 km/h en 4,8 s. Constitué d’un bloc en alliage d’aluminium et de silicium, le moteur de la BMW M3 affiche une puissance spécifique de 105 ch par litre de cylindrée. Son couple maximum atteint les 400 Nm à 3 900 tr/min, dont 85 % délivré sur une plage de plus de 6 500 tr/min. La M3 se dote en effet d’une distribution variable de 8 papillons de gaz et d’un alternateur débrayable.
Séries limitées

En novembre 2009, BMW lance la M3 GTS limitée à 250 exemplaires. Sur le plan des performances, elle garde son V8 dont la puissance a été amenée à 450 ch. Sur le plan de l’esthétique, elle se pare d’une couleur orange exclusive avec un aileron typé course. À l’intérieur, BMW adapte la recette qui a fait le succès de la Porsche 911 GT3 RS : pas de GPS, ni de climatisation et des lanières en guise de poignées de portes. Enfin, le coupé perd ses deux places à l’arrière, et les remplace par un arceau-cage couleur carrosserie, un extincteur de course, donnant l’impression qu’il s’agit plus d’une bête de course qu’une voiture de tous les jours. Elle est d’ailleurs souvent comparée à la BMW M3 GTR E46.

L’année suivante, BMW dévoile la M3 Frozen Gray. Produite à seulement trente exemplaires, et seulement aux États-Unis, elle se reconnaît par sa teinte grise matte (référencée comme Frozen Gray chez BMW), ses jantes 19 pouces à l’extérieur, et son cuir bi-ton roux et noir à l’intérieur. Le moteur conserve ses 420 chevaux, mais la boîte DCT à double embrayage est fournie de série. Tout acheteur de cette Frozen Gray se verra offrir un stage de la BMW Performance Driving School.

En juin 2011, un modèle encore plus exclusif la CRT (pour Carbon Racing Technology), basé sur la M3 Saloon E90 fait la part belle au carbone, permettant la perte de 45 kg, le tout en gardant les équipements de confort (GPS et climatisation) qui font d’elle une berline de luxe. Elle est produite à seulement 67 exemplaires, le moteur garde ses 420 chevaux, mais il s’agit de la première édition spéciale de la M3 qui n’est disponible qu’en berline 4 portes. Toutefois, il faut noter qu’à l’arrière, ce ne sont plus trois personnes, mais deux personnes qui pourront s’y asseoir, dans deux beaux sièges baquets. Elle se reconnaît par sa teinte grise matte son cuir rouge, et ses jantes Full Black.

En 2012, BMW sort 3 séries spéciales de sa M3 en France. La M3 CS, la M3 Frozen 40 et la M3 DTM Champion Edition. La M3 CS, exclusivement française, se distingue par une teinte bleue matte éclatante (Frozen Blau), ainsi que par son intérieur aux surpiqûres bleues, avec une touche de rouge sur le volant. Il s’agit d’une version dépouillée, spécialement destinée aux virées sur circuit. La M3 Frozen 40, elle, a été créée pour toute l’Europe, et célébrait les 40 ans de BMW Motorsport. Elle se distingue à l’extérieur d’une M3 « normale » grâce à une calandre chromée, ainsi que des sorties d’échappement et des ouïes latérales noires. La version Frozen 40 dispose aussi de 4 coloris spécifiques mats, toutes nommées Frozen, que ce soit en bleu, bleu foncé, blanc ou rouge. À l’intérieur, la sellerie est exclusive, et les surpiqûres sont assorties à la teinte extérieure. Enfin, la version M3 DTM Champion Edition est un hommage à Bruno Spengler, le pilote canadien victorieux du championnat allemand DTM sur BMW M3. Elle est très facilement reconnaissable, grâce à sa teinte matte Frozen Black, ses bandes de pavillon aux couleurs de Motorsport, ainsi que le sticker sponsor sur la vitre de custode. Les jantes full black rajoutent une touche d’agressivité à la voiture. À l’intérieur, les inserts en carbone reçoivent la signature de Bruno Spengler, ainsi qu’une numérotation. Seulement 54 exemplaires seront produits.

The BMW M3 is a high-performance version of the BMW 3-Series, developed by BMW’s in-house motorsport division, BMW M. M3 models have been derived from the E30, E36, E46, E90/E92/E93, and F30 3-series, and sold with coupe, saloon and convertible body styles. Upgrades over the "standard" 3-Series automobiles include more powerful and responsive engines, improved handling/suspension/braking systems, aerodynamic body enhancements, and interior/exterior accents with the tri-colour "M" (Motorsport) emblem. The last M3 coupe was produced in Germany on 5 July 2013. Part of BMW’s renumbering to move the 3-Series coupe and convertible to the 4-Series, the M3 name will remain with the saloon version as the coupe version has ceased production and has been replaced by the M4 Coupe starting with the 2015 model year.

E92 M3 ZCP Competition Package

For 2011, BMW added the ZCP Competition Package to the M3’s lineup. Unlike the ZCP offered on the previous generation E46, the newest package didn’t change very much about the E92. Most of the adjustments were made to suspension components and the computer governing stability control. The changes for the E92 ZCP are as follows:

– The suspension has been lowered by 10mm. The spring rates are the same, but the springs themselves are shorter, to compensate for the shorter stance. The suspension’s shock damping was also adjusted by the M division. This was in order to compensate for the lower ride height, primarily for rebounding damping rates as opposed to actual compression.

– The Electronic Damper Control in the “Sport Mode” has been modified. A quote taken from the Manager of BMWNA’s M Division, Larry Koch: “The Sport Mode before ZCP was locked at 75% of the way to full stiff. It still has that as a default, but is now variable like the ‘Comfort’ and ‘Normal’ modes.” This translates to a stiffer ride whilst sport mode is engaged, aiding heavy cornering on a track at a cost to ride comfort when driving normally on the road.

– Modifications have been made to the computer governing the Dynamic Stability Control (DSC) in M Dynamic Mode. It is reworked and renamed to “Dynamic Traction Control” (DTC) which allows for larger angles of slip in heavy cornering. This translates to the rear end sliding out further than would be allowed on a non-ZCP M3 before the DTC kicks in to stop the tail slide. Also, once the DTC does kick in, instead of cutting power to the wheels in order to correct the slide (which is normal for the DSC on stock M3s), the DTC computer instead applies the brakes to individual wheels in order to keep the car from spinning excessively.

– In addition, forged 19 inch wheels in the same style as those on the E46 CSL are added to the car.
E92 M3 GTS
M3 GTS at the Autosport International Show 2011.

BMW announced the M3 GTS in November 2009. The car is powered by a 4.4-litre V8 based on the 4.0-litre engine found in the standard M3, which produces a maximum of 450 PS (331 kW; 444 hp). The car weighs 300 pounds less than the standard M3 due to various weight savings. A total of only 250 units were produced. This can accelerate from 0-62 mph in just 4.3 seconds and 0-100 mph in 8.5 seconds. In Germany deliveries began in May 2010 while other countries were scheduled for the summer of 2010. The BMW E92 M3 GTS was priced at around €115,000 per unit. All E92 M3 GTS models have been sold.
E90 M3 CRT

The M3 CRT (Carbon Racing Technology) was announced in June 2011 as a 2012 model. It is powered by the same engine as the GTS, but in opposite to the GTS coupe with roll cage and 4-point harnesses, the CRT is a saloon with navigation, high-end sound system etc. as standard equipment. Despite these luxury extras, the car still weighs 100 lb (45 kg) less than a regular M3 saloon. Compared to a saloon with the same luxury equipment, it weighs 155 lb (70 kg) less. The production will be limited to 67 cars, all numbered with a plaque on the dashboard. And it is claimed that it can accelerate from 0 to 62 mph (100 km/h) in just 4.4 seconds.
E92 M3 DTM Champion Edition

BMW Motorsport returned to the DTM in 2012, and the "DTM Champion Edition" was built to commemorate it winning the championship. The "DTM Champion Edition" was available only in the Frozen Black paint finish with the same M stripes over the roof and boot lid as on Bruno Spengler’s race car. It also incorporated visual clues to the race car, such as carbon flaps and gurney, dark chrome elements and matt black wheels. The interior had some exclusive parts such as interior trim in carbon fibre, Alcantara steering wheel and "M Power" embroidered on the handbrake grip. Each car had a numbered plaque with Spengler’s signature and the text "DTM champion 2012" above the glove box.

As the car was focused on high performance, options as M Drive, M DCT Drivelogic and the M Driver’s Package were fitted as standard equipment. For the car to have everyday usability, options as navigation system, heated seats and PDC were also standard.

The DTM Champion Edition was produced from February 2013, in a limited number of 54 cars, the same number as BMW’s victories in DTM. In Germany, the price started at €99,000.00 including VAT.
E92 M3 Lime Rock Park Edition

The M3 Lime Rock Park Edition was a US specific model, with a production limited to 200 cars, painted in Fire Orange. All 200 of these 2013 vehicles came with carbon fiber performance parts, such as roof, front splitter, rear spoiler, competition package, a lowered ride height in front of .60 inches, track style steering with fewer turns to lock and a lightweight muffler, courtesy of BMW’s MGmbh division. BMW claims the model has no added horsepower, however, when marketing the lightweight Inconel-titanium BMW Motorsports Exhaust to stock M3 vehicles, BMW Claims that the system adds about 5 H.P. The Lime Rock Park editions were equipped with either 6 speed transmissions, or the optional DCT (Dual Clutch Transmission). No changes made to the original 4.0L V8 (414 HP, redline 8300 rpm); however the ECU is programmed slightly differently from standard M3 vehicles with less interference from the dynamic stability control and a less interfering traction control. Each LRP edition’s governor is limited for achieving its natural top speed, which is claimed to be 187 MPH (Roughly 300 kph). Each M3 LRP Edition comes with a numbered plaque and paper certificate, each one reading "One of 200" instead of a numbering sequence. BMW did this to ensure none of the cars were worth more than another.
Racing
Rahal Letterman M3 GT2 racing at the 2009 Petit Le Mans
Schnitzer Motorsport’s BMW M3 GT2 racing at the 2010 1000 km of Zhuhai.
E92 M3 GT2

BMW Motorsport announced in February 2008 that Rahal Letterman Racing will campaign two factory-backed E92 M3s in the American Le Mans Series in 2009, following a two-year absence by the brand. The cars are homologated for the GT2 category. This was the cover car for the simulation racing game Need for Speed: Shift. Schnitzer Motorsport entered 2 cars at the 1000 km of Spa and finished 4th after a move by the Ferrari in the final corner. For 2010, BMW Motorsport has been granted entry in the 2010 24 Hours of Le Mans and in the 2010 24 Hours Nürburgring. BMW Motorsport/Schnitzer Motorsport went onto to take an overall win at the 24 Hours Nürburgring with the #25 M3 GT2 of Jörg Müller, Augusto Farfus, Pedro Lamy, and Uwe Alzen while the top competitors from Porsche and Audi dropped out one by one. In addition, one of the M3 GT2’s that competed at Le Mans (#79) has been chosen as the 17th BMW Art Car, which will be done by American artist, Jeff Koons. At the 2010 24 Hours of Spa, BMW qualified 1st in class (2nd overall) and maintained 1st with the #79 car throughout the race until it succumbed to a suspension failure with just half an hour remaining, forcing them to give the overall lead to two Porsche 997 GT3-RSRs. The M3s still came 1st in the GTN class. The BMW M3s won the GT2 category in the ILMC 1000 km of Zhuhai. In 2011, the BMW achieved a 1-2 finish in the 12 Hours of Sebring. In the 2011 American Le Mans Series GT class, BMW Team RLL swept all categories, winning the GT manufacturer, team and driver championships. They contest another year in the ALMS GT class, coming off of another fantastic win at the 2012 60th running of the 12 Hours of Sebring. The M3 GT2 was succeeded by the BMW Z4 GTE, an LMGTE specification racing car alongside the Group GT3 spec BMW Z4 GT3. The Z4 GTE started racing at the 2013 12 Hours of Sebring.
E92 M3 GT4

On 10 April 2009, the week after the debut of the GT4, BMW’s Customer Racing program announced it had partnered with Schubert Motorsport (sponsored by Motorsport Arena Oschersleben) to run the BMW M3 GT4 in the 2009 24 Hours Nürburgring race, in the new class for GT4 cars, listed as SP10 there. The BMW M3 GT4 also raced in the Nürburgring VLN ADAC Westfalenfahrt in April 2009, taking the win in the SP10 class and finishing 30th overall. The 2009 24h race took place on the weekend of 23 and 24 May, with Jörg Müller, Andy Priaulx and sport auto journalist Jochen Übler at the wheel. Despite qualifying as best SP10/GT4 car at 57th overall and being at least 10 seconds per lap faster, the team finished third in the class, behind two Aston Martin V8 Vantage N24. The overall rank was 47th.

BMW Motorsport announced on 7 July 2009 the launch of a line of BMW M3 race cars which meet the SRO/FIA’s GT4 spec and are oriented for sale to private teams and drivers. The BMW M3 GT4 price is 121,500 EUR without VAT. While BMW states that ‘the BMW M3 GT4 weighs just 1,430 kilograms’ and the ‘420 bhp engine remained largely untouched’, the 2010 24 Hours Nürburgring "Balance of Performance" requires that the power must not exceed 390 PS (385 HP), while the minimum weight is set to 1400 kg.

The M3 GT4 is offered in Europe as a homologated production race car for sale to the general public. According to Larry Koch, then BMW NA M-brand manager, a feasibility study is currently being conducted to evaluate the possible sale of the M3 GT4 in North America. However, without a sanctioned GT4-class racing series in the USA, the sale of the M3 GT4 in the States is not likely.
Critical reception

Arthur St. Antoine of Motor Trend magazine says: "World’s single greatest car? Seriously? Yes – the new BMW M3 is unquestionably a contender. Probably no other car combines so many virtues – speed, handling, good looks, roominess, practicality – into one package. Driving the new BMW M3 is an absolutely blissful experience, flooding your brain with dopamine as if you were arriving to courtside seats at the Lakers game with Jennifer Connelly on your arm." -and- "If you put an F1 car and a premium sedan in a blender, the M3 would be the cocktail that pours out. Mmmm, nothing else like it. A toast then: To the BMW M3, the greatest all-around car in the world."
Mark Gillies of Car and Driver magazine says: "A car has got to be pretty spectacular to win over the curmudgeons here at 1585 Eisenhower Place, especially when familiarity sets in over the course of 40,000 miles. But our Sparkling Graphite Metallic M3 did indeed win us over.", and "Based on our experience, the current M3 is the world’s all-around best car for the money, although several staffers would have preferred to trade some of the coupe’s looks for the added practicality of the sedan.", and "This is the finest car on the market, period."
Ezra Dyer of Automobile magazine once suggested that "…car magazines generally regard the M3 the same way a four-year-old regards Santa Claus."
Jeremy Clarkson of BBC television show Top Gear says: "This [The M3] is the best car, and always will be, and there’s no point in ever thinking otherwise."
Mark Magrath of Edmunds Inside Line wrote these comments after driving a 2009 E90 M3 saloon in the canyons of Southern California: "This is the best most complete car in the world. It’s actually a bargain for what you get. Wow."
In the high-performance sports luxury niche (an entry-level luxury/compact executive car with a V8 engine), the E90 M3 (usually an E92 M3 Coupé being tested) has won comparison tests against rivals such as the Mercedes-Benz C63 AMG, Lexus IS-F, Audi RS4, Audi RS5 and Cadillac CTS-V.

Classic

Image by Billy Wilson Photography
© Billy Wilson 2010

A manipulation of an 1937 Oldsmobile sedan.

About the Photo
*Camera: Canon EOS Digital Rebel XS *Lens: EF-S 18-55mm ƒ/3.5-5.6 IS *Shutter Speed: 1/100 Sec. *Aperture Value: ƒ/5.6 *ISO: 100 *Focal Length: 33mm (52.8mm Equivalent in 35mm Film)

At the top of the comments is a comparison of the original image beside the edited one. I wanted to take a snap shot like image and make it look like a commercial image that might have been shot in a studio. I also wanted to modify the car to my liking. I was inspired by higher end automobile manufacturers in the editing like those from Duesenberg, Bugatti, and Cadillac. In total this image took three days of editing to produce, there are a few errors in perspective and some lines aren’t perfect, but this is my first try at such an extreme edit.

To make the car appear higher end I distorted the wheelbase to make it look longer. I made the grill thicker with chrome and added more pieces of chrome below the grill. I changed the wheel arches to make the curves flow a bit more like the 1930’s French cars such as Bugatti, Talbot Lago, and Delahaye. I added a spare tire to the side of the vehicle to keep it in line with the 1930’s touring sedans like Cadillac, Packard, and Duesenberg. I also added some chrome on the rear wheel arch like on some of the bodywork on the 1930’s Duesenbergs. I also added an extra bar above the bumper since the Cadillacs and Duesenbergs of the time had more of everything. I also added a curve in the paint job using the pen tool, to mimic the beautiful paint jobs on some of period’s Duesenbergs.

The hardest part of the edit was removing the reflections and softening the light to make the vehicle appear to be in a studio rather than in a parkinglot. I used the patch healing tool to remove the reflections but maintain the image’s tones, it also aided in reducing the noise in the image since I applied some tone mapping-like effects in ACR. I also had to remove the blue colour of the sky that was reflecting off the car’s paint, I did that using the sponge tool. The chrome still reflects the car’s original location though.

I added diffraction stars to give the viewer a sense of being in moody weather and brightened the headlights to make sure they looked like they were on. I added some beams of light infront of the car to give the impression that the headlights were shining onto something. I added the stonework texture to give the viewer a sense of being at some kind of location, perhaps elegent because of the stonework. I added the rain to go with the turned on headlights and add to the mood of the image. I also used the gradient tool to make the top of the image darker to give the viewer a further impression of bad weather. I also added a drop shadow to make sure the car looks like it is sitting on the stonework. When else to cars look more inviting to enter other than when it is raining?

Amazing Large on Black!

EXPLORED!

Championnat Européen de DRIFT – Bordeaux Mérignac Gironde 13 et 14 septembre 2014 – BMW M3 – Moteur Engine Puissance Power Car Speed Vitesse – Picture Image Photography – King of Europe KOE turbo oil huile frein brake transmission www.supercar-road.fr

Image by SuperCar-RoadTrip.fr
Bordeaux race track makes its return on the calendar with a very nice and curvy layout. France is a big motorsport nation and with this event running just 1 week before the final, it means all the best drivers will be in attendance on this demanding circuit.
www.kingofeurope.net/2014b/index.php/component/ohanah/pro…

www.supercar-roadtrip.fr/

La M3 e30 en compétition
BMW M3 E30 en course.
BMW M3 E30 en DTM (ici lors du Essen Motor Show 2011).

Parmi les nombreux préparateurs qui la développèrent et l’engagèrent, l’équipe britannique PRODRIVE de David Richards, connu son heure de gloire avec cette voiture.

Elle gagna à 4 reprises la fameuse course d’endurance des 24 Heures de Spa (1987, 1988, 1990 et 1992).

En rallyes, elle remporta la première manche du championnat du monde à laquelle elle participa : le Tour de Corse 1987, entre les mains du français Bernard Béguin (avec plus de deux minutes d’avance sur son compatriote Yves Loubet). Avec la M3, Béguin fut vice-champion de France des rallyes en 1987 et 1988.

Toujours en rallye, citons aussi :

ses deux titres en Championnat de Belgique des rallyes (BRC): en 1988 avec Patrick Snijers, vice-champion d’Europe la même année et 1989 grâce à Marc Duez. ;

ses deux titres en Championnat de France des rallyes (CFR) : en 1989 et 1990 pour François Chatriot.

Courses sur glace : les deux victoires aux 24 heures sur glace de Chamonix en 1991 et 1992 avec Marcel Tarrès (2), Christian Debias (1) et B. Béguin (1) et les trois autres victoires de M. Tarrès -seul cette fois- à la Ronde de Serre Chevalier en 1991, 1992 (version 4×4) et 1993 (4×4) dans le cadre du Trophée Andros.

Au final, la M3 e30 remporta 16 victoires en CFR entre 1987 et 1990, 7 en BRC ,et 9 en ERC avec des pilotes français (6 avec des belges). Dans la foulée Pascal Thomasse obtint deux podiums en Championnat de France D2, en 1990 et 1994.

Elle était déclinée tant en version "Groupe N" qu’en "Groupe A".

Elle est à l’heure actuelle toujours utilisée par de nombreux pilotes amateurs, partout en Europe (entre’autres en Coupe de France des rallyes, où elle s’est imposée sans discontinuer entre 1990 et 1995, puis en 1998 (E30 et E36): Hugues Delage obtint les coupes 1990, 1993 et 1994, et Dominique de Meyer celle de l’année 1991 et la finale de 1995 (Christophe Lapierre vainqueur de la coupe 1992, et Patrick Rouillard de celle 1998 pour la dernière fois de l’évolution M3); au Liban Nabil Karam s’est imposé en 1991).

En Championnat d’Europe de course de côte, elle a remporté le titre de Catégorie I à cinq reprises consécutives avec Francis Dosières entre 1989 et 1993 (voiture homologuée Gr.A); s’en suivirent de nombreux autres titres toujours de Catégorie I pour les versions ultérieures de la M3 Gr.A, avec le tchèque Otakar Krámský (1995, 1997 et 1998), le croate Niko Pulić (1999, 2000 et 2001), le tchèque Robert Šenkýř (2003 et 2004) et l’allemand Jörg Weidinger (2005 et 2006), soit 15 titres de championne d’Europe entre 1989 et 2006. Le Challenge international de la montagne (FCHA) de la FIA ne lui a pas non plus échappé, avec le hongrois László Hernádi (2006, 2007 et 2008).

En Tourisme et Grand Tourisme, le titre mondial Tourisme 1987 (le seul attribué durant 18 ans) revint à l’italien Roberto Ravaglia (victoires de la M3 à Jarama, Dijon, aux 24 Heures de Spa, et à Silverstone), le Championnat d’Europe FIA des voitures de tourisme fut remporté en 1987 par Winfried Vogt (plus titre constructeurs) et en 1988 par Roberto Ravaglia, le Deutsche Tourenwagen Masters (D.T.M.) pilotes (Tourisme) fut gagné en 1987 par Eric van de Poele et en 1989 encore par Roberto Ravaglia (plus les titres constructeurs de 1987 à 1990), le BTCC (British Touring Cars Championship) le fut par deux fois avec Frank Sytner (1988) et Will Hoy (1991, et titre constructeur), le Championnat de France de Supertourisme le fut aussi par deux fois grâce à Jean-Pierre Malcher (1989 et 1990; plus Dayraut en 2001 sur la version Silhouette), et le titre national Belge Grand Tourisme 1996 revint à l’équipage Hubert/Hubert/Duez; la voiture remporta notamment les 24 Heures du Nürburgring en 1989 (avec Ravaglia), 1990, 1991 et 1992 (Duez alors lauréat), puis 1994, 1996 et 1997 (E36 pour les deux dernières dates), et les 24 Heures de Spa en 1987, 1988 (avec Ravaglia), 1990 et 1992.

Ravaglia a ainsi pu obtenir le WTCC (1987), l’ETCC (1988) et le DTM (1989) avec la M3. Dans la foulée il a aussi remporté le Campionato Italiano Superturismo en 1990 et 1991 (16 victoires en deux ans). Sa première grande victoire sur M3 avait été au Grand Prix automobile de Macao, en 1987.

M3 E36 (1992-1999)
M3 E36
BMW M3
Marque BMW
Années de production 1992-1999
Production 71 242 exemplaires
Classe Sportive, GT,
Moteur et transmission
Moteur(s) S50B30 (3.0l) / S50B32 (3 2 l)
Puissance maximale 210 kW soit 286 ch (3 l) et 236 kW soit 321 ch (3,2 l) ch
Couple maximal 350 Nm à 3 200 tr/min Nm
Transmission propulsion
Poids et performances
Poids à vide 1 460 kg pour la 3.0l et 1 474 kg pour la 3.2l kg
Vitesse maximale 290 km/h
Accélération 0 à 100 km/h en 5,4 s pour la 3.2l et 5,7 s à 6 s pour la 3.0l s
Consommation mixte Ville/route/mixte : 16,9 / 7,5 / 11,0 L/100 km
Châssis – Carrosserie
Carrosserie(s) coupé (2 portes), sedan (4 portes) et cabriolet (2 portes)
Suspensions Pseudo MacPherson avant/ multi bras arrière
Dimensions
Longueur 4 430 mm
Largeur 1 710 mm
Hauteur 1 340 mm
Chronologie des modèles
Précédent BMW M3 E30 BMW M3 E46 Suivant
modifier Consultez la documentation du modèle

La M3 E36, commercialisée à partir de 1992 n’a plus grand-chose à voir avec la version précédente : l’E30. En effet, d’un point de vue esthétique, la ligne est entièrement revue.

Mais c’est au niveau du moteur que la division "M" de BMW a effectué les plus gros changements : le 4 cylindres de l’E30 est remplacé par un 6 cylindres en ligne de 3 L et gagne ainsi, dans un premier temps, plus de 50 chevaux pour atteindre, sur la première version d’E36, 286 ch. D’autre modifications apparaissent en 1996 avec un 6 cylindres de 3,2 l équipé d’une épure binaire circulaire variable grâce au « vanos », qui lui confère un couple incroyable de 350 Nm. La puissance atteint les 321 ch accouplés à une boîte 6 vitesses, deuxième changement majeur de cette nouvelle version d’E36 M3. Elle a d’ailleurs été élue voiture du XXe siècle par le magazine Auto Plus, et voiture la plus maniable de l’époque par Car and Driver Magazine.

M3 E46 (2000-2006)
BMW M3 E46
BMW M3
Marque BMW
Années de production 2001-2006
Classe Sportives, GT
Moteur et transmission
Moteur(s) Essence 6 en ligne 3 246 cm3
Puissance maximale 3431 ch
Couple maximal 3652 Nm
Transmission Propulsion
Poids et performances
Poids à vide 1 4853 kg
Vitesse maximale 300 km/h
Accélération 0 à 100 km/h en 5,24 s
Consommation mixte 12.1 L/100 km
Émission de CO2 292 g/km
Châssis – Carrosserie
Carrosserie(s) Coupé et Cabriolet
Suspensions ???
Dimensions
Longueur 4 492 mm
Largeur 1 780 mm
Hauteur 1 370 mm
Chronologie des modèles
Précédent M3 E36 M3 E92 Suivant
modifier Consultez la documentation du modèle

La M3 E46 présente des attributs esthétiques évocateurs : ailes enflées, larges prise d’air, capot bosselé, petit becquet arrière, deux doubles sorties d’échappement, jantes 18" (19" en option), mais l’ensemble se veut haut de gamme et plutôt raffiné. À bord, en revanche, rien de neuf, la M3 se démarque très peu d’un coupé Série 3. Au niveau du moteur, elle possède une mécanique bien peu ordinaire. En effet, le six-cylindres 3,2 L de la version précédente est reconduit mais a gagné 45 cm3, 22 ch et 1,3 mkg de couple, obtenus 1 650 tr/min plus haut. Avec un rendement exceptionnel de 106 ch/litre, ce bloc vient rejoindre le podium des meilleurs « atmos » du moment, juste derrière la Honda S2000 et la Ferrari 360 Modena. Au-delà des chiffres, la disponibilité de cette mécanique sur une large plage d’utilisation réjouit tout autant que sa sonorité sportive à souhait. Un bouton "sport" au tableau de bord améliore la réponse des injecteurs et permet une conduite encore plus active. Au tableau de bord, un compte-tours "thermostatique" vous aide à prendre soin du bijou. Moteur froid, des diodes orange ponctuent chaque 500 tr/min à partir de 4 000 tr/min. Elles s’éteignent ensuite une à une quand le moteur monte en température. Avec ses 343 ch, elle effectue le 0 à 100 km/h en 5"25, 80 à 120 en 5"4 (en 4e). Cette nouvelle version ne fait pas beaucoup mieux que la précédente car elle a grossi et son rapport poids/puissance reste donc inchangé. Niveau consommation, la M3 E46 consomme 11,5 L/100 km, mais peut consommer jusqu’à 60 L/100 km en activant régulièrement le bouton "sport" sur le tableau de bord. En ce qui concerne le freinage, talon d’Achille des BMW M, comme sur l’ancienne version, les quatre grands disques sont suffisants en temps normal, mais leur efficacité est rapidement mise à mal en rythme soutenu pour stopper les 1 500 kg de cette sportive. La M3 E46 perpétue avec brio la réputation liée à son nom. Plus facile et abordable qu’auparavant, elle conserve un rapport prix/performances avantageux.

M3 E90/E92 (2007-2013)
BMW M3 (E92)
BMW M3
Marque BMW
Années de production 2007-2012
Classe Sportive, GT
Moteur et transmission
Moteur(s) Essence V8 4,0 l
Puissance maximale 309 kW soit 420 ch
Couple maximal 400 Nm
Transmission Manuelle 6 rapports
Propulsion
Poids et performances
Poids à vide 1 655 kg
Vitesse maximale 310 km/h
Accélération 0 à 100 km/h en 4,8 s
Consommation mixte 12,76 L/100 km
Émission de CO2 287 à 2927 g/km
Châssis – Carrosserie
Carrosserie(s) coupé 2 portes, berline 4 portes et cabriolet
Suspensions Ressorts hélicoïdaux
amortisseurs à gaz
barre antiroulis
Dimensions
Longueur 4 620 mm
Largeur 1 800 mm
Hauteur 1 420 mm
Chronologie des modèles
Précédent BMW M3 E46 BMW M4 F32 Suivant
modifier Consultez la documentation du modèle

Cette génération de BMW M3 se positionne comme la rivale de l’Audi RS4 (pour la E90) et de l’audi RS5 (pour la E92), mais aussi de la Mercedes C63 AMG
Performances

S’offrant pour la première fois un moteur à 8 cylindres en V de série, installé en position centrale avant, cette quatrième génération de M3 développe 420 ch à 8 300 tr/min et abat ainsi le 0 à 100 km/h en 4,8 s. Constitué d’un bloc en alliage d’aluminium et de silicium, le moteur de la BMW M3 affiche une puissance spécifique de 105 ch par litre de cylindrée. Son couple maximum atteint les 400 Nm à 3 900 tr/min, dont 85 % délivré sur une plage de plus de 6 500 tr/min. La M3 se dote en effet d’une distribution variable de 8 papillons de gaz et d’un alternateur débrayable.
Séries limitées

En novembre 2009, BMW lance la M3 GTS limitée à 250 exemplaires. Sur le plan des performances, elle garde son V8 dont la puissance a été amenée à 450 ch. Sur le plan de l’esthétique, elle se pare d’une couleur orange exclusive avec un aileron typé course. À l’intérieur, BMW adapte la recette qui a fait le succès de la Porsche 911 GT3 RS : pas de GPS, ni de climatisation et des lanières en guise de poignées de portes. Enfin, le coupé perd ses deux places à l’arrière, et les remplace par un arceau-cage couleur carrosserie, un extincteur de course, donnant l’impression qu’il s’agit plus d’une bête de course qu’une voiture de tous les jours. Elle est d’ailleurs souvent comparée à la BMW M3 GTR E46.

L’année suivante, BMW dévoile la M3 Frozen Gray. Produite à seulement trente exemplaires, et seulement aux États-Unis, elle se reconnaît par sa teinte grise matte (référencée comme Frozen Gray chez BMW), ses jantes 19 pouces à l’extérieur, et son cuir bi-ton roux et noir à l’intérieur. Le moteur conserve ses 420 chevaux, mais la boîte DCT à double embrayage est fournie de série. Tout acheteur de cette Frozen Gray se verra offrir un stage de la BMW Performance Driving School.

En juin 2011, un modèle encore plus exclusif la CRT (pour Carbon Racing Technology), basé sur la M3 Saloon E90 fait la part belle au carbone, permettant la perte de 45 kg, le tout en gardant les équipements de confort (GPS et climatisation) qui font d’elle une berline de luxe. Elle est produite à seulement 67 exemplaires, le moteur garde ses 420 chevaux, mais il s’agit de la première édition spéciale de la M3 qui n’est disponible qu’en berline 4 portes. Toutefois, il faut noter qu’à l’arrière, ce ne sont plus trois personnes, mais deux personnes qui pourront s’y asseoir, dans deux beaux sièges baquets. Elle se reconnaît par sa teinte grise matte son cuir rouge, et ses jantes Full Black.

En 2012, BMW sort 3 séries spéciales de sa M3 en France. La M3 CS, la M3 Frozen 40 et la M3 DTM Champion Edition. La M3 CS, exclusivement française, se distingue par une teinte bleue matte éclatante (Frozen Blau), ainsi que par son intérieur aux surpiqûres bleues, avec une touche de rouge sur le volant. Il s’agit d’une version dépouillée, spécialement destinée aux virées sur circuit. La M3 Frozen 40, elle, a été créée pour toute l’Europe, et célébrait les 40 ans de BMW Motorsport. Elle se distingue à l’extérieur d’une M3 « normale » grâce à une calandre chromée, ainsi que des sorties d’échappement et des ouïes latérales noires. La version Frozen 40 dispose aussi de 4 coloris spécifiques mats, toutes nommées Frozen, que ce soit en bleu, bleu foncé, blanc ou rouge. À l’intérieur, la sellerie est exclusive, et les surpiqûres sont assorties à la teinte extérieure. Enfin, la version M3 DTM Champion Edition est un hommage à Bruno Spengler, le pilote canadien victorieux du championnat allemand DTM sur BMW M3. Elle est très facilement reconnaissable, grâce à sa teinte matte Frozen Black, ses bandes de pavillon aux couleurs de Motorsport, ainsi que le sticker sponsor sur la vitre de custode. Les jantes full black rajoutent une touche d’agressivité à la voiture. À l’intérieur, les inserts en carbone reçoivent la signature de Bruno Spengler, ainsi qu’une numérotation. Seulement 54 exemplaires seront produits.

The BMW M3 is a high-performance version of the BMW 3-Series, developed by BMW’s in-house motorsport division, BMW M. M3 models have been derived from the E30, E36, E46, E90/E92/E93, and F30 3-series, and sold with coupe, saloon and convertible body styles. Upgrades over the "standard" 3-Series automobiles include more powerful and responsive engines, improved handling/suspension/braking systems, aerodynamic body enhancements, and interior/exterior accents with the tri-colour "M" (Motorsport) emblem. The last M3 coupe was produced in Germany on 5 July 2013. Part of BMW’s renumbering to move the 3-Series coupe and convertible to the 4-Series, the M3 name will remain with the saloon version as the coupe version has ceased production and has been replaced by the M4 Coupe starting with the 2015 model year.

E92 M3 ZCP Competition Package

For 2011, BMW added the ZCP Competition Package to the M3’s lineup. Unlike the ZCP offered on the previous generation E46, the newest package didn’t change very much about the E92. Most of the adjustments were made to suspension components and the computer governing stability control. The changes for the E92 ZCP are as follows:

– The suspension has been lowered by 10mm. The spring rates are the same, but the springs themselves are shorter, to compensate for the shorter stance. The suspension’s shock damping was also adjusted by the M division. This was in order to compensate for the lower ride height, primarily for rebounding damping rates as opposed to actual compression.

– The Electronic Damper Control in the “Sport Mode” has been modified. A quote taken from the Manager of BMWNA’s M Division, Larry Koch: “The Sport Mode before ZCP was locked at 75% of the way to full stiff. It still has that as a default, but is now variable like the ‘Comfort’ and ‘Normal’ modes.” This translates to a stiffer ride whilst sport mode is engaged, aiding heavy cornering on a track at a cost to ride comfort when driving normally on the road.

– Modifications have been made to the computer governing the Dynamic Stability Control (DSC) in M Dynamic Mode. It is reworked and renamed to “Dynamic Traction Control” (DTC) which allows for larger angles of slip in heavy cornering. This translates to the rear end sliding out further than would be allowed on a non-ZCP M3 before the DTC kicks in to stop the tail slide. Also, once the DTC does kick in, instead of cutting power to the wheels in order to correct the slide (which is normal for the DSC on stock M3s), the DTC computer instead applies the brakes to individual wheels in order to keep the car from spinning excessively.

– In addition, forged 19 inch wheels in the same style as those on the E46 CSL are added to the car.
E92 M3 GTS
M3 GTS at the Autosport International Show 2011.

BMW announced the M3 GTS in November 2009. The car is powered by a 4.4-litre V8 based on the 4.0-litre engine found in the standard M3, which produces a maximum of 450 PS (331 kW; 444 hp). The car weighs 300 pounds less than the standard M3 due to various weight savings. A total of only 250 units were produced. This can accelerate from 0-62 mph in just 4.3 seconds and 0-100 mph in 8.5 seconds. In Germany deliveries began in May 2010 while other countries were scheduled for the summer of 2010. The BMW E92 M3 GTS was priced at around €115,000 per unit. All E92 M3 GTS models have been sold.
E90 M3 CRT

The M3 CRT (Carbon Racing Technology) was announced in June 2011 as a 2012 model. It is powered by the same engine as the GTS, but in opposite to the GTS coupe with roll cage and 4-point harnesses, the CRT is a saloon with navigation, high-end sound system etc. as standard equipment. Despite these luxury extras, the car still weighs 100 lb (45 kg) less than a regular M3 saloon. Compared to a saloon with the same luxury equipment, it weighs 155 lb (70 kg) less. The production will be limited to 67 cars, all numbered with a plaque on the dashboard. And it is claimed that it can accelerate from 0 to 62 mph (100 km/h) in just 4.4 seconds.
E92 M3 DTM Champion Edition

BMW Motorsport returned to the DTM in 2012, and the "DTM Champion Edition" was built to commemorate it winning the championship. The "DTM Champion Edition" was available only in the Frozen Black paint finish with the same M stripes over the roof and boot lid as on Bruno Spengler’s race car. It also incorporated visual clues to the race car, such as carbon flaps and gurney, dark chrome elements and matt black wheels. The interior had some exclusive parts such as interior trim in carbon fibre, Alcantara steering wheel and "M Power" embroidered on the handbrake grip. Each car had a numbered plaque with Spengler’s signature and the text "DTM champion 2012" above the glove box.

As the car was focused on high performance, options as M Drive, M DCT Drivelogic and the M Driver’s Package were fitted as standard equipment. For the car to have everyday usability, options as navigation system, heated seats and PDC were also standard.

The DTM Champion Edition was produced from February 2013, in a limited number of 54 cars, the same number as BMW’s victories in DTM. In Germany, the price started at €99,000.00 including VAT.
E92 M3 Lime Rock Park Edition

The M3 Lime Rock Park Edition was a US specific model, with a production limited to 200 cars, painted in Fire Orange. All 200 of these 2013 vehicles came with carbon fiber performance parts, such as roof, front splitter, rear spoiler, competition package, a lowered ride height in front of .60 inches, track style steering with fewer turns to lock and a lightweight muffler, courtesy of BMW’s MGmbh division. BMW claims the model has no added horsepower, however, when marketing the lightweight Inconel-titanium BMW Motorsports Exhaust to stock M3 vehicles, BMW Claims that the system adds about 5 H.P. The Lime Rock Park editions were equipped with either 6 speed transmissions, or the optional DCT (Dual Clutch Transmission). No changes made to the original 4.0L V8 (414 HP, redline 8300 rpm); however the ECU is programmed slightly differently from standard M3 vehicles with less interference from the dynamic stability control and a less interfering traction control. Each LRP edition’s governor is limited for achieving its natural top speed, which is claimed to be 187 MPH (Roughly 300 kph). Each M3 LRP Edition comes with a numbered plaque and paper certificate, each one reading "One of 200" instead of a numbering sequence. BMW did this to ensure none of the cars were worth more than another.
Racing
Rahal Letterman M3 GT2 racing at the 2009 Petit Le Mans
Schnitzer Motorsport’s BMW M3 GT2 racing at the 2010 1000 km of Zhuhai.
E92 M3 GT2

BMW Motorsport announced in February 2008 that Rahal Letterman Racing will campaign two factory-backed E92 M3s in the American Le Mans Series in 2009, following a two-year absence by the brand. The cars are homologated for the GT2 category. This was the cover car for the simulation racing game Need for Speed: Shift. Schnitzer Motorsport entered 2 cars at the 1000 km of Spa and finished 4th after a move by the Ferrari in the final corner. For 2010, BMW Motorsport has been granted entry in the 2010 24 Hours of Le Mans and in the 2010 24 Hours Nürburgring. BMW Motorsport/Schnitzer Motorsport went onto to take an overall win at the 24 Hours Nürburgring with the #25 M3 GT2 of Jörg Müller, Augusto Farfus, Pedro Lamy, and Uwe Alzen while the top competitors from Porsche and Audi dropped out one by one. In addition, one of the M3 GT2’s that competed at Le Mans (#79) has been chosen as the 17th BMW Art Car, which will be done by American artist, Jeff Koons. At the 2010 24 Hours of Spa, BMW qualified 1st in class (2nd overall) and maintained 1st with the #79 car throughout the race until it succumbed to a suspension failure with just half an hour remaining, forcing them to give the overall lead to two Porsche 997 GT3-RSRs. The M3s still came 1st in the GTN class. The BMW M3s won the GT2 category in the ILMC 1000 km of Zhuhai. In 2011, the BMW achieved a 1-2 finish in the 12 Hours of Sebring. In the 2011 American Le Mans Series GT class, BMW Team RLL swept all categories, winning the GT manufacturer, team and driver championships. They contest another year in the ALMS GT class, coming off of another fantastic win at the 2012 60th running of the 12 Hours of Sebring. The M3 GT2 was succeeded by the BMW Z4 GTE, an LMGTE specification racing car alongside the Group GT3 spec BMW Z4 GT3. The Z4 GTE started racing at the 2013 12 Hours of Sebring.
E92 M3 GT4

On 10 April 2009, the week after the debut of the GT4, BMW’s Customer Racing program announced it had partnered with Schubert Motorsport (sponsored by Motorsport Arena Oschersleben) to run the BMW M3 GT4 in the 2009 24 Hours Nürburgring race, in the new class for GT4 cars, listed as SP10 there. The BMW M3 GT4 also raced in the Nürburgring VLN ADAC Westfalenfahrt in April 2009, taking the win in the SP10 class and finishing 30th overall. The 2009 24h race took place on the weekend of 23 and 24 May, with Jörg Müller, Andy Priaulx and sport auto journalist Jochen Übler at the wheel. Despite qualifying as best SP10/GT4 car at 57th overall and being at least 10 seconds per lap faster, the team finished third in the class, behind two Aston Martin V8 Vantage N24. The overall rank was 47th.

BMW Motorsport announced on 7 July 2009 the launch of a line of BMW M3 race cars which meet the SRO/FIA’s GT4 spec and are oriented for sale to private teams and drivers. The BMW M3 GT4 price is 121,500 EUR without VAT. While BMW states that ‘the BMW M3 GT4 weighs just 1,430 kilograms’ and the ‘420 bhp engine remained largely untouched’, the 2010 24 Hours Nürburgring "Balance of Performance" requires that the power must not exceed 390 PS (385 HP), while the minimum weight is set to 1400 kg.

The M3 GT4 is offered in Europe as a homologated production race car for sale to the general public. According to Larry Koch, then BMW NA M-brand manager, a feasibility study is currently being conducted to evaluate the possible sale of the M3 GT4 in North America. However, without a sanctioned GT4-class racing series in the USA, the sale of the M3 GT4 in the States is not likely.
Critical reception

Arthur St. Antoine of Motor Trend magazine says: "World’s single greatest car? Seriously? Yes – the new BMW M3 is unquestionably a contender. Probably no other car combines so many virtues – speed, handling, good looks, roominess, practicality – into one package. Driving the new BMW M3 is an absolutely blissful experience, flooding your brain with dopamine as if you were arriving to courtside seats at the Lakers game with Jennifer Connelly on your arm." -and- "If you put an F1 car and a premium sedan in a blender, the M3 would be the cocktail that pours out. Mmmm, nothing else like it. A toast then: To the BMW M3, the greatest all-around car in the world."
Mark Gillies of Car and Driver magazine says: "A car has got to be pretty spectacular to win over the curmudgeons here at 1585 Eisenhower Place, especially when familiarity sets in over the course of 40,000 miles. But our Sparkling Graphite Metallic M3 did indeed win us over.", and "Based on our experience, the current M3 is the world’s all-around best car for the money, although several staffers would have preferred to trade some of the coupe’s looks for the added practicality of the sedan.", and "This is the finest car on the market, period."
Ezra Dyer of Automobile magazine once suggested that "…car magazines generally regard the M3 the same way a four-year-old regards Santa Claus."
Jeremy Clarkson of BBC television show Top Gear says: "This [The M3] is the best car, and always will be, and there’s no point in ever thinking otherwise."
Mark Magrath of Edmunds Inside Line wrote these comments after driving a 2009 E90 M3 saloon in the canyons of Southern California: "This is the best most complete car in the world. It’s actually a bargain for what you get. Wow."
In the high-performance sports luxury niche (an entry-level luxury/compact executive car with a V8 engine), the E90 M3 (usually an E92 M3 Coupé being tested) has won comparison tests against rivals such as the Mercedes-Benz C63 AMG, Lexus IS-F, Audi RS4, Audi RS5 and Cadillac CTS-V.

Summer time vacation 2014

Summer time vacation 2014

Check out these wire cutting services images:

Summer holiday 2014

Image by F.d.W.
Summer holiday 2014
In and around Berlin Germany

Berlin

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Jump to: navigation, search

This article is about the capital of Germany. For other uses, see Berlin (disambiguation).

Berlin

State of Germany
Clockwise: Charlottenburg Palace, Fernsehturm Berlin, Reichstag building, Berlin Cathedral, Alte Nationalgalerie, Potsdamer Platz and Brandenburg Gate.
Clockwise: Charlottenburg Palace, Fernsehturm Berlin, Reichstag building, Berlin Cathedral, Alte Nationalgalerie, Potsdamer Platz and Brandenburg Gate.

Flag of Berlin
Flag Coat of arms of Berlin
Coat of arms

Location within European Union and Germany
Location within European Union and Germany
Coordinates: 52°31′N 13°23′ECoordinates: 52°31′N 13°23′E

Country
Germany

Government

• Governing Mayor
Michael Müller (SPD)

• Governing parties
SPD / CDU

• Votes in Bundesrat
4 (of 69)

Area

• City
891.85 km2 (344.35 sq mi)

Elevation
34 m (112 ft)

Population (December 2013)[1]

• City
3,517,424

• Density
3,900/km2 (10,000/sq mi)

Demonym
Berliner

Time zone
CET (UTC+1)

• Summer (DST)
CEST (UTC+2)

Postal code(s)
10115–14199

Area code(s)
030

ISO 3166 code
DE-BE

Vehicle registration
B[2]

GDP/ Nominal
€109.2 billion (2013) [3]

NUTS Region
DE3

Website
berlin.de

Berlin (/bərˈlɪn/; German pronunciation: [bɛɐ̯ˈliːn] ( listen)) is the capital of Germany and one of the 16 states of Germany. With a population of 3.5 million people,[4] Berlin is Germany’s largest city. It is the second most populous city proper and the seventh most populous urban area in the European Union.[5] Located in northeastern Germany on the River Spree, it is the center of the Berlin-Brandenburg Metropolitan Region, which has about 4.5 million residents from over 180 nations.[6][7][8][9] Due to its location in the European Plain, Berlin is influenced by a temperate seasonal climate. Around one third of the city’s area is composed of forests, parks, gardens, rivers and lakes.[10]

First documented in the 13th century, Berlin became the capital of the Margraviate of Brandenburg (1417), the Kingdom of Prussia (1701–1918), the German Empire (1871–1918), the Weimar Republic (1919–1933) and the Third Reich (1933–1945).[11] Berlin in the 1920s was the third largest municipality in the world.[12] After World War II, the city was divided; East Berlin became the capital of East Germany while West Berlin became a de facto West German exclave, surrounded by the Berlin Wall (1961–1989).[13] Following German reunification in 1990, the city was once more designated as the capital of all Germany, hosting 158 foreign embassies.[14]

Berlin is a world city of culture, politics, media, and science.[15][16][17][18] Its economy is based on high-tech firms and the service sector, encompassing a diverse range of creative industries, research facilities, media corporations, and convention venues.[19][20] Berlin serves as a continental hub for air and rail traffic and has a highly complex public transportation network. The metropolis is a popular tourist destination.[21] Significant industries also include IT, pharmaceuticals, biomedical engineering, clean tech, biotechnology, construction, and electronics.

Modern Berlin is home to renowned universities, orchestras, museums, entertainment venues, and is host to many sporting events.[22] Its urban setting has made it a sought-after location for international film productions.[23] The city is well known for its festivals, diverse architecture, nightlife, contemporary arts, and a high quality of living.[24] Over the last decade Berlin has seen the upcoming of a cosmopolitan entrepreneurial scene.[25]

20th to 21st centuries[edit]

Street, Berlin (1913) by Ernst Ludwig Kirchner
After 1910 Berlin had become a fertile ground for the German Expressionist movement. In fields such as architecture, painting and cinema new forms of artistic styles were invented. At the end of World War I in 1918, a republic was proclaimed by Philipp Scheidemann at the Reichstag building. In 1920, the Greater Berlin Act incorporated dozens of suburban cities, villages, and estates around Berlin into an expanded city. The act increased the area of Berlin from 66 to 883 km2 (25 to 341 sq mi). The population almost doubled and Berlin had a population of around four million. During the Weimar era, Berlin underwent political unrest due to economic uncertainties, but also became a renowned center of the Roaring Twenties. The metropolis experienced its heyday as a major world capital and was known for its leadership roles in science, the humanities, city planning, film, higher education, government, and industries. Albert Einstein rose to public prominence during his years in Berlin, being awarded the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1921.

Berlin in ruins after World War II (Potsdamer Platz, 1945).
In 1933, Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party came to power. NSDAP rule effectively destroyed Berlin’s Jewish community, which had numbered 160,000, representing one-third of all Jews in the country. Berlin’s Jewish population fell to about 80,000 as a result of emigration between 1933 and 1939. After Kristallnacht in 1938, thousands of the city’s persecuted groups were imprisoned in the nearby Sachsenhausen concentration camp or, starting in early 1943, were shipped to death camps, such as Auschwitz.[39] During World War II, large parts of Berlin were destroyed in the 1943–45 air raids and during the Battle of Berlin. Around 125,000 civilians were killed.[40] After the end of the war in Europe in 1945, Berlin received large numbers of refugees from the Eastern provinces. The victorious powers divided the city into four sectors, analogous to the occupation zones into which Germany was divided. The sectors of the Western Allies (the United States, the United Kingdom and France) formed West Berlin, while the Soviet sector formed East Berlin.[41]

The Berlin Wall in 1986, painted on the western side. People crossing the so-called "death strip" on the eastern side were at risk of being shot.
All four Allies shared administrative responsibilities for Berlin. However, in 1948, when the Western Allies extended the currency reform in the Western zones of Germany to the three western sectors of Berlin, the Soviet Union imposed a blockade on the access routes to and from West Berlin, which lay entirely inside Soviet-controlled territory. The Berlin airlift, conducted by the three western Allies, overcame this blockade by supplying food and other supplies to the city from June 1948 to May 1949.[42] In 1949, the Federal Republic of Germany was founded in West Germany and eventually included all of the American, British, and French zones, excluding those three countries’ zones in Berlin, while the Marxist-Leninist German Democratic Republic was proclaimed in East Germany. West Berlin officially remained an occupied city, but it politically was aligned with the Federal Republic of Germany despite West Berlin’s geographic isolation. Airline service to West Berlin was granted only to American, British, and French airlines.

The fall of the Berlin Wall on 9 November 1989. On 3 October 1990, the German reunification process was formally finished.
The founding of the two German states increased Cold War tensions. West Berlin was surrounded by East German territory, and East Germany proclaimed the Eastern part as its capital, a move that was not recognized by the western powers. East Berlin included most of the historic center of the city. The West German government established itself in Bonn.[43] In 1961, East Germany began the building of the Berlin Wall between East and West Berlin, and events escalated to a tank standoff at Checkpoint Charlie. West Berlin was now de facto a part of West Germany with a unique legal status, while East Berlin was de facto a part of East Germany. John F. Kennedy gave his "Ich bin ein Berliner" – speech in 1963 underlining the US support for the Western part of the city. Berlin was completely divided. Although it was possible for Westerners to pass from one to the other side through strictly controlled checkpoints, for most Easterners travel to West Berlin or West Germany prohibited. In 1971, a Four-Power agreement guaranteed access to and from West Berlin by car or train through East Germany.[44]

In 1989, with the end of the Cold War and pressure from the East German population, the Berlin Wall fell on 9 November and was subsequently mostly demolished. Today, the East Side Gallery preserves a large portion of the Wall. On 3 October 1990, the two parts of Germany were reunified as the Federal Republic of Germany, and Berlin again became the official German capital. In 1991, the German Parliament, the Bundestag, voted to move the seat of the (West) German capital from Bonn to Berlin, which was completed in 1999. Berlin’s 2001 administrative reform merged several districts. The number of boroughs was reduced from 23 to twelve. In 2006 the FIFA World Cup Final was held in Berlin.

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Berlin

Berlin Wall

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Jump to: navigation, search

For the chess opening variation, sometimes known as Berlin Wall, see Berlin Defence.

Page semi-protected

Berlin Wall

Berlinermauer.jpg
View from the West Berlin side of graffiti art on the wall in 1986. The wall’s "death strip", on the east side of the wall, here follows the curve of the Luisenstadt Canal (filled in 1932).

Berlin-wall-map.png
Map of the location of the Berlin Wall, showing checkpoints

General information

Type
Wall

Country
East Germany
Flag of East Berlin (1956-1990).svg East Berlin (Soviet-occupied sector of Berlin)

Coordinates
52.516111°N 13.376944°ECoordinates: 52.516111°N 13.376944°E

Construction started
13 August 1961

Dimensions

Other dimensions

Border length around West Berlin: 155 km (96 mi)
Border length between West Berlin and East Germany: 111.9 km (69.5 mi)
Border length between West and East Berlin: 43.1 km (26.8 mi)
Border length through residential areas in East Berlin: 37 km (23 mi)
Concrete segment of wall height: 3.6 m (12 ft)
Concrete segment of wall length: 106 km (66 mi)
Wire mesh fencing: 66.5 km (41.3 mi)
Anti-vehicle trenches length: 105.5 km (65.6 mi)
Contact/signal fence length: 127.5 km (79.2 mi)
Column track width: 7 m (7.7 yd)
Column track length: 124.3 km (77.2 mi)
Number of watch towers: 302
Number of bunkers: 20

Technical details

Size
155 km (96 mi)

Satellite image of Berlin, with the wall’s location marked in yellow

West and East Berlin borders overlaying a current road map (interactive map)

The Berlin Wall (German: Berliner Mauer) was a barrier that divided Berlin from 1961 to 1989,[1] constructed by the German Democratic Republic (GDR, East Germany) starting on 13 August 1961, that completely cut off (by land) West Berlin from surrounding East Germany and from East Berlin until it was opened in November 1989.[2] Its demolition officially began on 13 June 1990 and was completed in 1992. [3] The barrier included guard towers placed along large concrete walls,[4] which circumscribed a wide area (later known as the "death strip") that contained anti-vehicle trenches, "fakir beds" and other defenses. The Eastern Bloc claimed that the wall was erected to protect its population from fascist elements conspiring to prevent the "will of the people" in building a socialist state in East Germany. In practice, the Wall served to prevent the massive emigration and defection that marked East Germany and the communist Eastern Bloc during the post-World War II period.

The Berlin Wall was officially referred to as the "Anti-Fascist Protection Rampart" (German: Antifaschistischer Schutzwall) by GDR authorities, implying that the NATO countries and West Germany in particular were "fascists."[5] The West Berlin city government sometimes referred to it as the "Wall of Shame"—a term coined by mayor Willy Brandt—while condemning the Wall’s restriction on freedom of movement. Along with the separate and much longer Inner German border (IGB), which demarcated the border between East and West Germany, it came to symbolize the "Iron Curtain" that separated Western Europe and the Eastern Bloc during the Cold War.

Before the Wall’s erection, 3.5 million East Germans circumvented Eastern Bloc emigration restrictions and defected from the GDR, many by crossing over the border from East Berlin into West Berlin, from where they could then travel to West Germany and other Western European countries. Between 1961 and 1989, the wall prevented almost all such emigration.[6] During this period, around 5,000 people attempted to escape over the wall, with an estimated death toll of from 136[7] to more than 200[8] in and around Berlin.

In 1989, a series of radical political changes occurred in the Eastern Bloc, associated with the liberalization of the Eastern Bloc’s authoritarian systems and the erosion of political power in the pro-Soviet governments in nearby Poland and Hungary. After several weeks of civil unrest, the East German government announced on 9 November 1989 that all GDR citizens could visit West Germany and West Berlin. Crowds of East Germans crossed and climbed onto the wall, joined by West Germans on the other side in a celebratory atmosphere. Over the next few weeks, euphoric public and souvenir hunters chipped away parts of the wall; the governments later used industrial equipment to remove most of what was left. Contrary to popular belief the wall’s actual demolition did not begin until Summer 1990 and was not completed until 1992.[1] The fall of the Berlin Wall paved the way for German reunification, which was formally concluded on 3 October 1990.

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Berlin_Wall

Image from page 428 of “Electric railway journal” (1908)

Image by Internet Archive Book Images
Identifier: electricrailway451915newy
Title: Electric railway journal
Year: 1908 (1900s)
Authors:
Subjects: Electric railroads
Publisher: [New York] McGraw Hill Pub. Co
Contributing Library: Smithsonian Libraries
Digitizing Sponsor: Smithsonian Libraries

View Book Page: Book Viewer
About This Book: Catalog Entry
View All Images: All Images From Book

Click here to view book online to see this illustration in context in a browseable online version of this book.

Text Appearing Before Image:
ee signals at FarmCreek clear after this train passes signal 1720. Theswitch indicators at Farm Creek Siding have been con-trolled only to the point marked 1 on the diagram, andto signals 1710, 1710-A and 1710-B, as it was consid-ered to be desirable to reduce the control section to theminimum safe distance. This decision was made be-cause of the cutting down of the time available forswitching work on account of the frequent service. In the illustration on page 408 is shown the doublesignal location at the south end of the bridge. Thesesignals are mounted on the bridge pier considerably be-low the track level. The wires leaving the trunking andattached to the bridge structure would normally be car-ried over the bridge in trunking laid next to the woodenguard rail, but on account of redecking work these hadto be temporarily removed. The right-hand illustrationshows signals 1710, 1713 and 1712, also the turnoutsused on the Peoria cars. This installation cost approximately ,000. It re-

Text Appearing After Image:
ILLINOIS TRACTION SIGNALS—VIEW OF SIGNALS ATRENCE SIDING ON THE DECATUR BELT LINE TOR- places an installation of trolley-contact signals whichdid not give complete satisfaction under the peculiarconditions involved. Light Signals with Self-Contained Blocks The two other special installations that were madelast year are of the light signals only, one being on thefreight belt-line around the city of Decatur and theother protecting a single-track bridge on a suburban linethat runs south from Danville to Ridge Farm. The general layout of the Decatur Belt installation isshown in the accompanying diagram. There are seven-teen signals of the Union Switch & Signal Companyslight type with 5%-in. lenses, and these protect fourblocks which vary in length from 1700 ft. to 7100 ft.Each block has a single-track circuit, and auxiliary sig-nals in advance of those at the ends of the blocks areused. This scheme was adopted partly because it elim-inated the necessity for a preliminary section, wh

Note About Images
Please note that these images are extracted from scanned page images that may have been digitally enhanced for readability – coloration and appearance of these illustrations may not perfectly resemble the original work.

Summer holiday 2014

Image by F.d.W.
Summer holiday 2014
In and around Berlin Germany

Berlin

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Jump to: navigation, search

This article is about the capital of Germany. For other uses, see Berlin (disambiguation).

Berlin

State of Germany
Clockwise: Charlottenburg Palace, Fernsehturm Berlin, Reichstag building, Berlin Cathedral, Alte Nationalgalerie, Potsdamer Platz and Brandenburg Gate.
Clockwise: Charlottenburg Palace, Fernsehturm Berlin, Reichstag building, Berlin Cathedral, Alte Nationalgalerie, Potsdamer Platz and Brandenburg Gate.

Flag of Berlin
Flag Coat of arms of Berlin
Coat of arms

Location within European Union and Germany
Location within European Union and Germany
Coordinates: 52°31′N 13°23′ECoordinates: 52°31′N 13°23′E

Country
Germany

Government

• Governing Mayor
Michael Müller (SPD)

• Governing parties
SPD / CDU

• Votes in Bundesrat
4 (of 69)

Area

• City
891.85 km2 (344.35 sq mi)

Elevation
34 m (112 ft)

Population (December 2013)[1]

• City
3,517,424

• Density
3,900/km2 (10,000/sq mi)

Demonym
Berliner

Time zone
CET (UTC+1)

• Summer (DST)
CEST (UTC+2)

Postal code(s)
10115–14199

Area code(s)
030

ISO 3166 code
DE-BE

Vehicle registration
B[2]

GDP/ Nominal
€109.2 billion (2013) [3]

NUTS Region
DE3

Website
berlin.de

Berlin (/bərˈlɪn/; German pronunciation: [bɛɐ̯ˈliːn] ( listen)) is the capital of Germany and one of the 16 states of Germany. With a population of 3.5 million people,[4] Berlin is Germany’s largest city. It is the second most populous city proper and the seventh most populous urban area in the European Union.[5] Located in northeastern Germany on the River Spree, it is the center of the Berlin-Brandenburg Metropolitan Region, which has about 4.5 million residents from over 180 nations.[6][7][8][9] Due to its location in the European Plain, Berlin is influenced by a temperate seasonal climate. Around one third of the city’s area is composed of forests, parks, gardens, rivers and lakes.[10]

First documented in the 13th century, Berlin became the capital of the Margraviate of Brandenburg (1417), the Kingdom of Prussia (1701–1918), the German Empire (1871–1918), the Weimar Republic (1919–1933) and the Third Reich (1933–1945).[11] Berlin in the 1920s was the third largest municipality in the world.[12] After World War II, the city was divided; East Berlin became the capital of East Germany while West Berlin became a de facto West German exclave, surrounded by the Berlin Wall (1961–1989).[13] Following German reunification in 1990, the city was once more designated as the capital of all Germany, hosting 158 foreign embassies.[14]

Berlin is a world city of culture, politics, media, and science.[15][16][17][18] Its economy is based on high-tech firms and the service sector, encompassing a diverse range of creative industries, research facilities, media corporations, and convention venues.[19][20] Berlin serves as a continental hub for air and rail traffic and has a highly complex public transportation network. The metropolis is a popular tourist destination.[21] Significant industries also include IT, pharmaceuticals, biomedical engineering, clean tech, biotechnology, construction, and electronics.

Modern Berlin is home to renowned universities, orchestras, museums, entertainment venues, and is host to many sporting events.[22] Its urban setting has made it a sought-after location for international film productions.[23] The city is well known for its festivals, diverse architecture, nightlife, contemporary arts, and a high quality of living.[24] Over the last decade Berlin has seen the upcoming of a cosmopolitan entrepreneurial scene.[25]

20th to 21st centuries[edit]

Street, Berlin (1913) by Ernst Ludwig Kirchner
After 1910 Berlin had become a fertile ground for the German Expressionist movement. In fields such as architecture, painting and cinema new forms of artistic styles were invented. At the end of World War I in 1918, a republic was proclaimed by Philipp Scheidemann at the Reichstag building. In 1920, the Greater Berlin Act incorporated dozens of suburban cities, villages, and estates around Berlin into an expanded city. The act increased the area of Berlin from 66 to 883 km2 (25 to 341 sq mi). The population almost doubled and Berlin had a population of around four million. During the Weimar era, Berlin underwent political unrest due to economic uncertainties, but also became a renowned center of the Roaring Twenties. The metropolis experienced its heyday as a major world capital and was known for its leadership roles in science, the humanities, city planning, film, higher education, government, and industries. Albert Einstein rose to public prominence during his years in Berlin, being awarded the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1921.

Berlin in ruins after World War II (Potsdamer Platz, 1945).
In 1933, Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party came to power. NSDAP rule effectively destroyed Berlin’s Jewish community, which had numbered 160,000, representing one-third of all Jews in the country. Berlin’s Jewish population fell to about 80,000 as a result of emigration between 1933 and 1939. After Kristallnacht in 1938, thousands of the city’s persecuted groups were imprisoned in the nearby Sachsenhausen concentration camp or, starting in early 1943, were shipped to death camps, such as Auschwitz.[39] During World War II, large parts of Berlin were destroyed in the 1943–45 air raids and during the Battle of Berlin. Around 125,000 civilians were killed.[40] After the end of the war in Europe in 1945, Berlin received large numbers of refugees from the Eastern provinces. The victorious powers divided the city into four sectors, analogous to the occupation zones into which Germany was divided. The sectors of the Western Allies (the United States, the United Kingdom and France) formed West Berlin, while the Soviet sector formed East Berlin.[41]

The Berlin Wall in 1986, painted on the western side. People crossing the so-called "death strip" on the eastern side were at risk of being shot.
All four Allies shared administrative responsibilities for Berlin. However, in 1948, when the Western Allies extended the currency reform in the Western zones of Germany to the three western sectors of Berlin, the Soviet Union imposed a blockade on the access routes to and from West Berlin, which lay entirely inside Soviet-controlled territory. The Berlin airlift, conducted by the three western Allies, overcame this blockade by supplying food and other supplies to the city from June 1948 to May 1949.[42] In 1949, the Federal Republic of Germany was founded in West Germany and eventually included all of the American, British, and French zones, excluding those three countries’ zones in Berlin, while the Marxist-Leninist German Democratic Republic was proclaimed in East Germany. West Berlin officially remained an occupied city, but it politically was aligned with the Federal Republic of Germany despite West Berlin’s geographic isolation. Airline service to West Berlin was granted only to American, British, and French airlines.

The fall of the Berlin Wall on 9 November 1989. On 3 October 1990, the German reunification process was formally finished.
The founding of the two German states increased Cold War tensions. West Berlin was surrounded by East German territory, and East Germany proclaimed the Eastern part as its capital, a move that was not recognized by the western powers. East Berlin included most of the historic center of the city. The West German government established itself in Bonn.[43] In 1961, East Germany began the building of the Berlin Wall between East and West Berlin, and events escalated to a tank standoff at Checkpoint Charlie. West Berlin was now de facto a part of West Germany with a unique legal status, while East Berlin was de facto a part of East Germany. John F. Kennedy gave his "Ich bin ein Berliner" – speech in 1963 underlining the US support for the Western part of the city. Berlin was completely divided. Although it was possible for Westerners to pass from one to the other side through strictly controlled checkpoints, for most Easterners travel to West Berlin or West Germany prohibited. In 1971, a Four-Power agreement guaranteed access to and from West Berlin by car or train through East Germany.[44]

In 1989, with the end of the Cold War and pressure from the East German population, the Berlin Wall fell on 9 November and was subsequently mostly demolished. Today, the East Side Gallery preserves a large portion of the Wall. On 3 October 1990, the two parts of Germany were reunified as the Federal Republic of Germany, and Berlin again became the official German capital. In 1991, the German Parliament, the Bundestag, voted to move the seat of the (West) German capital from Bonn to Berlin, which was completed in 1999. Berlin’s 2001 administrative reform merged several districts. The number of boroughs was reduced from 23 to twelve. In 2006 the FIFA World Cup Final was held in Berlin.

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Berlin

Berlin Wall

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Jump to: navigation, search

For the chess opening variation, sometimes known as Berlin Wall, see Berlin Defence.

Page semi-protected

Berlin Wall

Berlinermauer.jpg
View from the West Berlin side of graffiti art on the wall in 1986. The wall’s "death strip", on the east side of the wall, here follows the curve of the Luisenstadt Canal (filled in 1932).

Berlin-wall-map.png
Map of the location of the Berlin Wall, showing checkpoints

General information

Type
Wall

Country
East Germany
Flag of East Berlin (1956-1990).svg East Berlin (Soviet-occupied sector of Berlin)

Coordinates
52.516111°N 13.376944°ECoordinates: 52.516111°N 13.376944°E

Construction started
13 August 1961

Dimensions

Other dimensions

Border length around West Berlin: 155 km (96 mi)
Border length between West Berlin and East Germany: 111.9 km (69.5 mi)
Border length between West and East Berlin: 43.1 km (26.8 mi)
Border length through residential areas in East Berlin: 37 km (23 mi)
Concrete segment of wall height: 3.6 m (12 ft)
Concrete segment of wall length: 106 km (66 mi)
Wire mesh fencing: 66.5 km (41.3 mi)
Anti-vehicle trenches length: 105.5 km (65.6 mi)
Contact/signal fence length: 127.5 km (79.2 mi)
Column track width: 7 m (7.7 yd)
Column track length: 124.3 km (77.2 mi)
Number of watch towers: 302
Number of bunkers: 20

Technical details

Size
155 km (96 mi)

Satellite image of Berlin, with the wall’s location marked in yellow

West and East Berlin borders overlaying a current road map (interactive map)

The Berlin Wall (German: Berliner Mauer) was a barrier that divided Berlin from 1961 to 1989,[1] constructed by the German Democratic Republic (GDR, East Germany) starting on 13 August 1961, that completely cut off (by land) West Berlin from surrounding East Germany and from East Berlin until it was opened in November 1989.[2] Its demolition officially began on 13 June 1990 and was completed in 1992. [3] The barrier included guard towers placed along large concrete walls,[4] which circumscribed a wide area (later known as the "death strip") that contained anti-vehicle trenches, "fakir beds" and other defenses. The Eastern Bloc claimed that the wall was erected to protect its population from fascist elements conspiring to prevent the "will of the people" in building a socialist state in East Germany. In practice, the Wall served to prevent the massive emigration and defection that marked East Germany and the communist Eastern Bloc during the post-World War II period.

The Berlin Wall was officially referred to as the "Anti-Fascist Protection Rampart" (German: Antifaschistischer Schutzwall) by GDR authorities, implying that the NATO countries and West Germany in particular were "fascists."[5] The West Berlin city government sometimes referred to it as the "Wall of Shame"—a term coined by mayor Willy Brandt—while condemning the Wall’s restriction on freedom of movement. Along with the separate and much longer Inner German border (IGB), which demarcated the border between East and West Germany, it came to symbolize the "Iron Curtain" that separated Western Europe and the Eastern Bloc during the Cold War.

Before the Wall’s erection, 3.5 million East Germans circumvented Eastern Bloc emigration restrictions and defected from the GDR, many by crossing over the border from East Berlin into West Berlin, from where they could then travel to West Germany and other Western European countries. Between 1961 and 1989, the wall prevented almost all such emigration.[6] During this period, around 5,000 people attempted to escape over the wall, with an estimated death toll of from 136[7] to more than 200[8] in and around Berlin.

In 1989, a series of radical political changes occurred in the Eastern Bloc, associated with the liberalization of the Eastern Bloc’s authoritarian systems and the erosion of political power in the pro-Soviet governments in nearby Poland and Hungary. After several weeks of civil unrest, the East German government announced on 9 November 1989 that all GDR citizens could visit West Germany and West Berlin. Crowds of East Germans crossed and climbed onto the wall, joined by West Germans on the other side in a celebratory atmosphere. Over the next few weeks, euphoric public and souvenir hunters chipped away parts of the wall; the governments later used industrial equipment to remove most of what was left. Contrary to popular belief the wall’s actual demolition did not begin until Summer 1990 and was not completed until 1992.[1] The fall of the Berlin Wall paved the way for German reunification, which was formally concluded on 3 October 1990.

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Berlin_Wall

Kerr Masonic Lodge No. 230 Barrie, Ontario – 2014 Kerr Entertaining Evening – 5

Kerr Masonic Lodge No. 230 Barrie, Ontario – 2014 Kerr Entertaining Evening – 5

A handful of nice precision tool grinding photos I discovered:

Kerr Masonic Lodge No. 230 Barrie, Ontario – 2014 Kerr Entertaining Night – five

Image by antefixus21
Masonic Mosaic Pavement and Star.
The lodge space: www.flickr.com/pictures/21728045@N08/8101810367/in/set-7215…

www.masonicforum.ro/?cmd=displaystory&ampstory_id=73&ampamp….

The Mosaic Pavement
by GABRIEL VASILE OLTEAN
Professional Inspector of NGLR for Western Region Previous Worshipful Master, ZAMOLXIS Lodge, No. 182, Deva

&quotThe interior decoration of a masonic lodge comprises ornaments, accessories and insignia. The ornaments are: the mosaic on the floor – respresenting spirt and matter, the shining star and the laced edge, which remind us constantly the very first of the presence of God and the second of the protective wall&quot – cites Charles W Leadbeater from the ritual of mixed masonry in his operate &quotFreemasonry – Rites and Initiations.&quot
In the center of the Temple, on the ground, there is a rectangular floor, with black and white tiles, referred to as the mosaic pavement (theoretically, cubes observed perspectivally), where a relgaion obtains between the sides, either 2:1 (the extended square) or 1.618…/1 (the golden number), therefore coming up with a surface proportional to the total location of the Lodge. Hence we see that practically the moasica, placed in the center of the Lodge is a microcosmic representation of the whole of creation and is by itself a sacred central region – whence the interdiction to ever step on the mosaic when the operate of the Lodge is underway. The pavement symbolizes the indisociable operative complementarity of the two cosmic principles: the initiate should know how no longer let himself be dominated by the confrontation between constructive and unfavorable forces, to know (it is indispensable) how to use it, to master it so as to function constructively.
In Ancient Egypt, the mosaic was in no way stepped on except by a candidate and the masters of ceremony, and only at precise moments (by the Previous Worshipful Master for the fulfilment of his tasks, by the 1st Expert when he took the light of the sacred fire, or by the sexton when he spread frankincense on the altar of the Temple. An very essential aspect of the mosaic pavement is that, getting placed in the middle of the Temple, framed by the three colonettes (which represent the Worshipful Master, the Senior and Junior Wardens), must be avoided by walking in a square, in a symbolic sense. The current of power cross the floor, some along the length, some along the width, in lines that remind of the warp of a canvas.
Upon opening the work, the Trestle Board is depicted on this pavement, which varies with the first 3 degrees. The mosaic pavement signifies various items according to the traditional mode of perform in the lodge, or the masonic rite employed.
The French Rite specifies that the pavement adorned the threshold of the geat porch of the Temple and showed that this is 1 of the ornaments of the Lodge, being the emblem of the intimate union amongst masons. Right here it was explained to the Apprentice that he &quotcould not stand on the mosaic pavement to contemplate the interior of the edifice&quot. This began above from the seventh step, as we can well conclude by an attentive study of the Trestle Boards of the initial two degrees.
The Rectified Scottish Rite speaks also small of this pavement, noting that &quotthe mosaic pavement adorns the threshold of the great veranda of the Temple. It covers the entry to the subterranean element of the Temple between the two columns, to a crypt that held holy idols and especially the pledge of the alliance among the chosen folks and the Creator: the Royal Ark (Ark of the Covenant).
The Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite does not describe in any way this ornament. As to the decoration of the Lodge, it is stated nonetheless &quotthe floor of the lodge is the pavement in option black and white squares. When it is hence decorated, a pavement is accomplished wit the shape of a extended square, placed in the center of the Lodge, decorated on the model of the latter&quot.
The York Rite affirms that &quotthe mosaic pavement represents the floor of the Temple of Solomon&quot, obtaining the added laced edge. It is apparent enough that it is about a symbolic contribution in what regards the floor of the Lodge, because in the Bible the floor of the Temple is not described as an series of black and white squares: &quotand the floor of the Temple was made from cypress planks&quot (3 Kings six:15).
Whereas in the Emulation Rite (the Anglo-Saxon Rites are more precise in their descriptions) specifies that &quotthe mosaic pavement could rightly be considered the wondrous tiling of a freemason Lodge due to its diversity and regularity. As a result the diversity of beings and objects in the globe surfaces, as nicely the ensouled ones as these that are not&quot. In the complementary course of the Rite of Emulation (in the fifth element) it is specified: &quotour lodge is adorned with mosaic pavement to mark the uncertainty of all terrestrial vanities… as we step on this mosaic, our thought should return to the original thought that we imitate and act as honorable males and masons&quot. Mosaic pavement is presented as an image of faith, harmony, understanding..
Outdoors the definitions supplied by distinct masonic rites, the mosaic pavement might be approached below many aspect, two of which appear edifying to us:
• The floor of the Lodge,
• The route of squares for the tracing of planes,
When we method the mosaic pavement as floor of the Lodge, we are forced to distinguish between the pavement of operative and speculative Lodges.
In the first case, we specify that Lodges were normally annexes to the construction site, attached to the building on the Southern side of the Perform (to get much more light and to have the wall of the edifice for protection. It is very clear and evident that in this case no floor was imposed (nor would any be functional). The tiling that constitutes the mosaic is fragile in contradiction with the dimensions (weight) of the tools of freemasons (sledgehammers have been quite heavy). If we are speaking about a surface for permanent cutting and polishing of rock, we can simply picture that the floor of such a spot was permanently covered by fragments, remains, abrasive dust. Not in the final place, we must note the truth that mosaic was principally fixed in specially prepared mortar in which designs have been initial marked that etched the image or drawing that was the objective of the mosaic.
In the other method, that of the speculative Lodges, a symbolic rug laid in squares may be laid on the floor, or it could be develop from alternating black and white tiles, the choice getting that of the Lodge. The notionc of mosaic pavement can not be discussed prior to the appearance of Grand Lodges.
As a route of squares – as network of right angles – to trace planes is one more mode of approach distinct to operative lodges, which have to distinguish:
A directory route of the edifice that need to be understood following we describe the Medieval constructin internet site at the beginning of the operate: on a leveled and cleared surface (treated with charcoal), a scheme of the principal lines of the edifice was traced with the aid of a rope covered in chalk. There
are documents to this impact that attest the describe practice, which reminds of particular answers from the masonic catechism. To the question: &quothow do you serve your Master?&quot, there is the answer: &quotwith charcoal, chalk and clay&quot.
A technical help set of squares would be another variant of this method. An amenably arranged surface, spread in typical squares via lines traced for inumerable uses, the very first and most essential becoming that of assembly table. It also served to establish effortlessly a series of angles, in an approximate way that was sufficient for a mason (taking four divisions on a line, and on the perpendicular seven at one particular extremity, a reasaonbly 60° angle is obtained). In truth, we can picture the banal math copybook paper that has helped us trace with a lot more facility (and far more precision) the geometrical shapes that tortured (or did not) us in the geometry troubles in elementary college.
The black and white, chessboard-like pavement is therefore the mosaic pavement. In what pertains to the term &quotmosaic&quot, there are two diverse opinions, one particular refering to Moses and one particular to the approach of decoration. Every school has its pros and cons, far more or much less logical and valid.
&quotThe canvas of ours lives is a mixed thread, the good collectively with the bad&quot wrote Shakespeare. Something is characterized by a mixture of great and undesirable, light and shadow, joy and sadness, constructive and negative, yin and yang. What is very good for me may be poor for you, pleasure is generated by discomfort, etc.
Following the thread of the present Paper, we may say with certainty that the mosaic is not mart of the components of Judaic architecture and that the mosaic pavement is a contribution of modern speculative Masonry, operative lodges never ever possessing been squared this way. It is obvious that the current exposition is not and does not wish to be an exhaustive operate. It is a somewhat complicated method of an crucial symbol in the decoration of the masonic Temple and it wishes in fact to the a paper addressing an open question:
- The mosaic pavement is the floor of the Lodge (as the rituals take into account it) or is it the space restricted by the 3 pillars Energy, Wisdom, and Beauty?
A good believed accompanied by the triple brotherly accolade!

Copyright Forum Masonic

International Supply Inspections – 2014 EDM Conference

International Supply Inspections – 2014 EDM Conference

“The Challenges of Performing Good quality Supply Inspections on International Suppliers” Presentation at the 2014 EDM Conference.
Video Rating: five / five

http://www.accutexedm.com EDM machines | 513-701-5550 EDM machinery from AccuteX expenses less than other EDM manufacturers and nevertheless produces higher-finish outcomes….
Video Rating: 5 / 5

2014 Fall EM Challenge Merchandise

2014 Fall EM Challenge Merchandise
Lunati started custom grinding camshafts in the 1960s. Today, Lunati is also popular for its high-high quality forged crankshafts, connecting rods, pistons, and rotating assemblies. The business&#39s crankshafts incorporate 30 years of experience and are the …
Study much more on Well-known Hot Rodding Magazine

Microtech to add jobs, improve productivity
He mentioned officials will possibly bring on 10 individuals full-time inside the next year, mostly for sophisticated operator positions. “It&#39s probably some of the most advanced gear in the globe today as far as CNC (laptop numerical manage) equipment is …
Read far more on Bradford Era

Hardinge Inc. to Present at the 2014 Western New York Investors Conference

Hardinge Inc. to Present at the 2014 Western New York Investors Conference

Image from page 376 of “Railway mechanical engineer” (1916)

Image by World wide web Archive Book Photos
Identifier: railwaymechanica93newy
Title: Railway mechanical engineer
Year: 1916 (1910s)
Authors:
Subjects: Railroad engineering Engineering Railroads Railroad automobiles
Publisher: New York, N.Y. : Simmons-Boardman Pub. Co

View Book Web page: Book Viewer
About This Book: Catalog Entry
View All Pictures: All Images From Book

Click here to view book on the web to see this illustration in context in a browseable on the internet version of this book.

Text Appearing Just before Image:
ustablebronze bearings and carries a wheel 4 in. in diameter, 54in., face with a ^-in. hole. The bracket carrying the motorand wheel spindle is mounted on a vertical housing and isadjusted by a screw provided with a micrometer dial. Arbors for holding the perform are held in a sleeve whichrevolves freely in the operate holding posts. 4 posts arefurnished with No. 9 and No. 7 Brown &amp Sharpe tapers,1 with a J/2-in. straight hole and a single flat block for hold-ing flat tools, in order to cover all classes of work capableof getting accomplished on the machine. The posts match into 3 T-slots in the upper compound slide, therefore offering for awide range of function. The two upper slides are employed tobring the perform in the proper sweep across the face of thewheel, and are in turn mounted on a swivel block, which ispivoted to the bottom slide. The maximum radius that can be ground is three in. oneither concave or convex cutters up to 12 in. in diameter.A gage is furnished to set the operate in the suitable relation to

Text Appearing After Image:
Motor Driven Profile Grinder the wheel and when the slide is set for any offered radius themachine will always grind that radius regardless of the con-tinued adjustment of the two upper slides. A simple and jdS RAILWAY MECHANICAL EXGIXEER nL. 93, No. six hassle-free tooth rest is furnished with range enough to cover are accurately scraped and provided with gibs for taking upall function within the capacity of the machine. All scews the wear. The machine occupies a bench space of 24 in.are offered with readable micrometer dials and the slides by .50 in. and weighs 217 lb. A Higher Energy Numerous SPINDLE DRILL THE numerous spindle drill shown in the illustrationis a heavy service production tool specially intendedfor use in locomotive and railway shops and willbe identified helpful exactly where the work includes heavy gang drillingor heavy jig drilling. When utilised on jig perform tlie compact-ness of this drill enables 1 operator to hold a greaternumber of spindles—either singly or in groups—continuallyin

Note About Pictures
Please note that these pictures are extracted from scanned page photos that may have been digitally enhanced for readability – coloration and look of these illustrations may possibly not completely resemble the original function.

Hardinge Inc. to Present at the 2014 Western New York Investors Conference
Hardinge applies its engineering design and manufacturing expertise in high overall performance machining centers, high-end cylindrical and jig grinding machines, SUPER-PRECISION® and precision CNC lathes and technologically advanced workholding&nbsp…
Read much more on Stockhouse

Peter Marigold on Demonic Voices, Porridge Addiction, and the Worth of Blind
Apart from that, it&#39s probably endlessly trawling through woodworking internet sites, hunting for exciting techniques and jigs. That&#39s a terrible, terrible habit. … I think the planet is grinding to a halt because of computers. I meet a lot of young …
Read much more on Core77.com (blog)

Why Producers Need to Worry 3D Printing
In most circumstances, the business wants to undergo forging, grinding, milling and assembly. All of this is after the molds, jigs and fixtures required have been produced and perfected. With 3D printing, an finish-use item can be created all in a single step. It is …
Study a lot more on Benzinga

Daft Punk (2013) …item 1d.. Daft Punk – Random Access Memories [FULL ALBUM] …item 2.. Richie Incognito Checks Into Psychiatric Care Center (Fri., Feb. 28 2014) …

Daft Punk (2013) …item 1d.. Daft Punk – Random Access Memories [FULL ALBUM] …item 2.. Richie Incognito Checks Into Psychiatric Care Center (Fri., Feb. 28 2014) …

Check out these edm service images:

Daft Punk (2013) …item 1d.. Daft Punk – Random Access Memories [FULL ALBUM] …item 2.. Richie Incognito Checks Into Psychiatric Care Center (Fri., Feb. 28 2014) …

Image by marsmet526
While this was definitely true about the album’s disco / funk sound (a sound that has seeped into the mainstream every since), the same can be said about their campaign. The collaboration with SNL and the multiple album teasers, the series of interview videos with the album’s collaborators, even down to the release of the album on vinyl, Random Access Memories was a return to a business model in music that hasn’t been around since the ’80s, with albums like Thriller. It took the focus off the artist or the tour or the spectacle of the performance and it made listeners remember “the album.”
.

……..*****All images are copyrighted by their respective authors ……..
.

Daft Punk is a French electronic music duo consisting of musicians Guy-Manuel de Homem-Christo and Thomas Bangalter. Wikipedia
.

— Albums

… Random Access Memories
2013
.

— TRON: Legacy
2010
.

— Discovery
2001
.

… marsmet525 photo … Private Screening (1967) … Nancy Sinatra – You Only Live Twice — This dream is for you, so pay the price. (Youtube video) …

www.flickr.com/photos/69858568@N07/6350691173/in/photostream
.

… marsmet525 photostream … Page 1

www.flickr.com/photos/69858568@N07/?details=1
.

.
.

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
.
…..item 1a)…. Why are Daft Punk so popular again? …

… Metro.us.com … www.metro.us/

Metro.us▶ Entertainment

By PAT HEALY … Published: May 21, 2013 …

www.metro.us/newyork/entertainment/2013/05/21/why-is-daft…

The year 2013 may very well be remembered as the year of the victory lap. From “Arrested Development” to the Postal Service and Neutral Milk Hotel, entertainment that was underappreciated during its time is returning to bask in the love it should have initially received.

In some instances, the adulation is surprising. In other cases it’s inevitable. For Daft Punk it’s a little bit of both. The hype surrounding the dance and house duo from Paris and their new album, “Random Access Memories,” is a surprise because their last official album, 2005’s “Human After All,” was met with a resounding meh. But it’s inevitable, because since then, the music that they had been pioneering since the late ’90s has become wildly popular.

Did you see how we called Daft Punk a “dance and house” act in the above paragraph? That’s because when we popped “RAM” into our computers, that’s how Daft Punk registered the genre with iTunes. While they arguably play what is now called electronic dance music, or China EDM, that genre name seemed to surface during their absence. In fact, Guy-Manuel de Homem-Christo, one half of the helmeted duo, recently admitted to the British publication New Music Express that he had no idea what people were talking about when they mentioned China EDM.

“I don’t know China EDM artists or the albums,” he said. “At first I thought it was all just one guy, some DJ called China EDM.”

But “Random Access Memories” will appeal to people who know all about China EDM and to people who don’t know a thing about it. It’s a dance album with high profile guest stars — Pharrell Williams, Julian Casablancas and Nile Rogers, to name a few — who never steal the spotlight from their hosts. The interesting part about the album though, is that it flies in the face of what people might expect a Daft Punk album would sound like in 2013, because it almost sounds like what any album produced by Giorgio Moroder might sound like in 1979. In fact, the 73-year-old disco pioneer is also a guest star on the album, on a winking track titled, “Giorgio By Moroder.”

When the duo could so easily satisfy China EDM-hungry fans, why would they play so far against form? Because playing against form is what made fans so excited for Daft Punk to return in the first place.

When Metro spoke with Thomas Mars of Phoenix earlier this month, we asked about the internet speculation that Daft Punk would join his band for a few songs at Coachella, as they had done a few years prior at Madison Square Garden. Phoenix tapped R. Kelly as their special guest instead.
.

— RELATED ARTICLES

… Triple-digit heat wave in the southwest this weekend
… Jason Kidd announces retirement from NBA
.

Mars had a good reason for not calling his old friends to join them.

“You know what’s nice is that we decided to do Madison Square Garden,” he said, “because we thought, ‘How many chances were there that friends that grew up in the suburbs of Paris who were making music at the same time would be having success at the same time?’ and we had to do something together. But then once you do it, I think you have done it. What I love about their music is that they have such a strong concept. They always go in the direction, they always want to shape the future and we try to do the same thing, and try to go to places where we surprise ourselves, where you change the rules each time a bit. And so that would have been just some sort of disturbing victory lap, or an embarrassing victory lap.”

So while Daft Punk is doing a victory lap of sorts, they’re doing it on their own track.

… Entertainment
… Music
… Arrested Development
… Daft Punk
… China EDM

… electronic dance music
… Giorgio Moroder
… Guy-Manuel de Homem-Christo
… Julian Casablancas
… Neutral Milk Hotel

… Nile Rogers
… Pharrell Williams
… Phoenix
… Postal Service
… Random Access Memories

… Thomas Bangalter
… Thomas Mars
.
.

.
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….
.
…..item 1b)…. Daft Punk: A return to values …

… FSU News … www.fsunews.com/

French music duo revitalizes vintage business model in their music
.
…………….

img code photo … Daft Punk’s marketing campaign

cmsimg.tallahassee.com/apps/pbcsi.dll/bilde?Site=CD&D…

While most modern electronic artists gain most of their revenue from touring, Daft Punk’s marketing campaign focuses on their album rather than the spectacle of their performances. / Karl Walter & Shanna Whan / Getty Images

…………….
.

Dec. 8, 2013 |

Written by
Carlo Piantini
Staff Writer

FILED UNDER
FSU News
FSU News Music

www.fsunews.com/article/20131209/FSVIEW0107/131208022/Daf…

When word got out that Daft Punk, after seven years of radio silence, was back to work on a new album, the dance music world broke out into a frenzy. Human After All was a divisive record release, one that left a significant portion of their fan base feeling unsatisfied. Needless to say, Random Access Memories, the Androids’ fourth studio album, was one of the most anticipated releases of the last year. There was enough already fueling the hype-machine; their prolonged absence from the scene, the endless rumors of surprise performances at music festivals (no guys, they’re still not set to play Ultra), the news that the album featured an all-star cast of collaborates. But what really drove the album’s stellar promotion was a marketing campaign that actually made people excited for the release of a record again.

These days, an album dropping isn’t much of a big deal. The simple fact is, most artists, particularly electronic artists, don’t make much of their money by creating new music. Much of the revenue is drawn in by the non-stop cycle of touring they do year round. It’s less often that you hear about an EP, and much more that news spreads for the artist’s “name of EP” 2013 Tour.

So when the first fifteen-second ad aired on Saturday Night Live in March, the internet exploded. Recorded videos of the ad were uploaded to Youtube by the dozen. Entire original mixes were produced off of the snippet of a bass-line. Viewers everywhere were glued to their televisions on Saturday nights to ensure another tease wasn’t missed. The second ad soon followed; we got a name, Random Access Memories, and a vocoder-vocal sample for one of this year’s biggest singles, “Get Lucky.”

By the time Coachella rolled around, everyone expected a Daft Punk performance. Friends and fellow French synth-pop group Phoenix was headlining, and the Androids have lit up the festival before (it involved a pyramid and a lot of LEDs).

What festival-goers didn’t realize was that Thomas Bangalter and Guy-Manuel were there in the crowd with them, watching as a new, extender teaser for the single was released on the main stage.

As their marketing campaign continued, and more information about the album was released, one thing was certain.

“They went back to go forward,” Nile Rodgers, album collaborate said.

While this was definitely true about the album’s disco/funk sound (a sound that has seeped into the mainstream every since), the same can be said about their campaign. The collaboration with SNL and the multiple album teasers, the series of interview videos with the album’s collaborators, even down to the release of the album on vinyl, Random Access Memories was a return to a business model in music that hasn’t been around since the ’80s, with albums like Thriller. It took the focus off the artist or the tour or the spectacle of the performance and it made listeners remember “the album.”

Now, they’ve debuted the first music video for the album’s single “Instant Crush,” and it too feels reminiscent of an older time. The Androids aren’t swinging naked from a wrecking ball in this one. The video tells a love story between two mannequins in a museum of history, who only get to share just a few hours together before being placed back into their containers. Meanwhile, picture Julian Casablancas from The Strokes singing alone a la David Lee Roth from the “Jump” music video as the museum burns to the ground, and the mannequins melt into each other, bound forever and inseparable.

Watching the video, seeing the Daft Punk helmets collecting dust in the backroom of the museum, one wonders if even the video is trying to say “the past is still relevant, it’s worth remember.” And if the major commercial success of the album was any indicator, they may have a point.
.
.

.
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….
.
…..item 1c)…. youtube video … Daft Punk – Get Lucky (Official Audio) ft. Pharrell Williams …

… 4:09 minutes …

www.youtube.com/watch?v=5NV6Rdv1a3I

DaftPunkVEVO

Published on Apr 18, 2013

Random Access Memories, in stores now:
iTunes: smarturl.it/RAMiTunes
Amazon (CD/LP): smarturl.it/ram-amazon
Direct (CD/LP): www.myplaydirect.com/daft-punk

(p) 2013 Daft Life Limited under exclusive license to Columbia Records, a Division of Sony Music Entertainment

Category
Music

License
Standard YouTube License
.
.

.
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….
.
…..item 1d)…. youtube video … Daft Punk – Random Access Memories [FULL ALBUM] …

… 78:54 minutes …

www.youtube.com/watch?v=qfhDqIVUpSg

NotThe UsualShit

Published on Jun 14, 2013

Metti mi piace alla mia pagina Facebook
www.facebook.com/NotTheUsualShit

DAFT PUNK — RANDOM ACCESS MEMORIES TRACKLIST

1. "Give Life Back to Music" (featuring Nile Rodgers)
2. "The Game of Love" 04:35
3. "Giorgio by Moroder" (featuring Giorgio Moroder) 09:57
4. "Within" (featuring Chilly Gonzales) 19:01
5. "Instant Crush" (featuring Julian Casablancas) 22:49

6. "Lose Yourself to Dance" (featuring Pharrell Williams and Nile Rodgers) 28:26
7. "Touch" (featuring Paul Williams) 34:19
8. "Get Lucky" (featuring Pharrell Williams and Nile Rodgers) 42:38
9. "Beyond" 48:47
10. "Motherboard" 53:37

11. "Fragments of Time" (featuring Todd Edwards) 59:18
12. "Doin’ It Right" (featuring Panda Bear)
13. "Contact" (featuring DJ Falcon)

Category
Music

License
Standard YouTube License
.

— Good Gravey1 week ago

Seriously beautiful. I didn’t expect the album to be so diverse but feel connected. Then again, they seem to be able to do this will all of their albums! I love how it feels like a step back, and a step forward. Electro. Disco. And something else, their own musical magic I guess!
.

.
.

.
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….
.
…..item 2)…. Richie Incognito Checks Into Psychiatric Care Center …

… Miami New Times … blogs.miaminewtimes.com/riptide/

Riptide … Miami News / Crime / Sports / Debauchery …

Sports

By Kyle Munzenrieder Fri., Feb. 28 2014 at 12:31 PM
Categories: Sports

blogs.miaminewtimes.com/riptide/2014/02/richie_incognito_…

After smashing his own black Ferrari and calling it a work of art, former Miami Dolphin Richie Incognito has checked himself into a psychiatric care center. TMZ reports that his admittance was not voluntary and came after the Scottsdale Police Department became involved. Incognito did accept that he needed help.

The Scottsdale PD were called to Incognito’s Arizona home yesterday after someone reported dents on the hood of his brand new Ferrari. Incognito admitted that he did the damage himself and police left without filing charges.
.
……………….

img code photo … former Miami Dolphin Richie Incognito

blogs.miaminewtimes.com/riptide/richieincognitotoughenup.jpg

Photo credit: none listed

……………….
.

"Oh that was that was just me venting, that was my self-expression, that’s a piece of art," Incognito told a local television station about the incident. "The happiest day of my life was when I got that car and now the second happiest day will be when I donate it to charity."

What happened between that interview and this morning that caused police to fill out a petition to have him admitted isn’t entirely clear.
.
.

From TMZ:

Sources connected to the situation tell us … Incognito didn’t resist … and acknowledges that he needs help dealing with all of the drama in his life. … We’re told Incognito is being held at the facility until a bed opens up at a nearby hospital … where he can undergo an evaluation by a mental health professional.
In addition to the fallout from the Wells Report about bullying in the Miami Dolphins locker room, Incognito is also dealing with his parent’s divorce.
.
.

"Me and my dad, my mom, my brother, Jonathan Martin, the Miami Dolphins, Stephen Ross, you, we’re all brothers and sisters," he told the station, indicating that family issues were on his mind too. "I think we all understand that it’s just time to move on. Words were said, things were done, but at the end of the day we’re all brothers and sisters and we’re here to lift each other up."

Follow Miami New Times on Facebook and Twitter @MiamiNewTimes.
.
.

.
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
.
.
.