A couple of nice surface grinding manufacturer photos I discovered:
9K22 Tunguska Anti-Aircraft Weapon. ЗСУ 9К22 “Тунгуска”
Image by Peer.Gynt
Military Historical Museum of Artillery, Engineers and Signal Corps
The 2K22 Tunguska (Russian: 2К22 "Тунгуска" English: Tunguska) is a Russian tracked self-propelled anti-aircraft weapon armed with a surface-to-air gun and missile system. It is created to supply day and night protection for infantry and tank regiments against low-flying aircraft, helicopters, and cruise missiles in all weather conditions. Its NATO reporting name is SA-19 "Grison".
Improvement of the system started on 8 June 1970, at the request of the Soviet Ministry of Defence the KBP Instrument Style Bureau in Tula beneath the guidance of the appointed Chief Designer AG Shipunov started perform on a 30 mm anti-aircraft system as a replacement for the 23 mm ZSU-23-4.
The project which was provided the designation "Tunguska" was a response to the observed shortcoming of the ZSU-23-four (quick range and no early warning) and a counter to new ground attack aircraft in improvement such as the A-10 Thunderbolt II which was made to be highly resistant to 23 mm cannons. Research were performed and demonstrated that a 30 mm cannon would require two-to-3 instances fewer shells to destroy a given target than the 23 mm cannon of the ZSU-23-4, and that firing at a MiG-17 (or similarly at, in case of war, NATO’s Hawker Hunter or Fiat G.91) flying at 300 m/s, with an identical mass of 30 mm projectiles would result in a kill probability of 1.5 occasions greater than with 23 mm projectiles. An improve in the maximum engagement altitude from two,000 to 4,000 m and improved effectiveness when engaging lightly armoured ground targets have been also cited.
The initial needs set for the method have been to attain twice the functionality in terms of range, altitude and combat effectiveness than the ZSU-23-4, in addition the method need to have a reaction time no greater than 10 seconds. Due to the similarities in fire handle of artillery and missiles it was decided that Tunguska would be a combined gun and missile method. By combining guns and missiles, the system is a lot more successful than the ZSU-23-4, engaging targets at long-variety with missiles, and shorter range targets with guns.
In addition to KBP as the major contractor other members of the Soviet military industrial complicated have been involved in the project, the chassis were developed at the Minsk tractor factory, the radio gear at the Ulyanovsk Mechanical Factory Ulyanovsk, guidance and navigational systems by VNII "Signal" and optics had been developed by the Leningrad Optical Mechanical Association LOMO.
Nonetheless development was slowed amongst 1975 and 1977 right after the introduction of the 9K33 Osa missile method, which seemed to fill the very same requirement but with greater missile overall performance. Right after some considerable debate it was felt that a purely missile based program would not be as powerful at dealing with really low flying attack helicopters attacking at quick variety with no warning as had been confirmed so productive in the 1973 Arab-Israeli War. Since the reaction time of a gun method is around 8–10 seconds, compared to the reaction time of missile-based technique, around 30 seconds, improvement was restarted.
The initial designs have been completed in 1973 with pilot production completed in 1976 at the Ulyanovsk Mechanical Factory. Technique testing and trials have been conducted in between September 1980 and December 1981 on the Donguzskom variety. It was officially accepted into service on 8 September 1982 and the initial version designated 2K22/2S6, with four missiles in the prepared to fire position (two on every side). The Tunguska entered into restricted service from 1984 when the initial batteries have been delivered to the army.
After a limited production run of the original 9K22, an improved version designated 2K22M/2S6M entered service in 1990. The 2K22M featured several improvements with eight prepared-to-fire missiles (four on each and every side) as properly as modifications to the fire manage applications, missiles and the basic reliability of the system.
Tunguska underwent additional improvement when in 2003 the Russian armed forces accepted the Tunguska-M1 or 2K22M1 into service. The M1 introduced the new 9M311-M1 missile which produced a number of changes allowing the 2K22M1 to engage little targets like cruise missiles by replacing the eight-beam laser proximity fuze with a radio fuse. Further modification afforded higher resistance to infrared countermeasures by supplementing the missile tracking flare with a pulsed IR beacon. Other improvements integrated an increased missile range to ten km, enhanced optical tracking and accuracy, enhanced fire handle co-ordination amongst components of a battery and the command post. Overall the Tunguska-M1 has a combat efficiency 1.3–1.5 instances greater than the Tunguska-M.
The Tunguska loved ones was till lately a special and very competitive weapons method, even though in 2007 the Pantsir gun and missile technique entered production at KBP—a descendant of the Tunguska, the Pantsir technique provides even higher overall performance than its predecessor.
Kind Surface-to-air missile
Spot of origin- Soviet Union
Service history-In service 1982–present
Used by Belarus, India, Morocco, Myanmar, Russia, former Soviet Union, Ukraine
Designer – KBP Instrument Style Bureau
Manufacturer KBP Instrument Design Bureau
Developed – 1976–present
Variants: 9M311, 9M311K, 9M311-1, 9M311M, 9M311-M1, 57E6
Weight -57 kg
Length – 2560 mm
Warhead – Continuous-rod and steel cubes
Warhead weight – 9 kg
Detonation mechanism – Laser fuze (Radio fuze 9M311-M1)
Propellant – Solid-fuel rocket
Operational variety 8 kilometres (5. mi) (10 kilometres (6.2 mi) 9M311-M1)
Flight altitude – three,500 metres (11,500 ft)
Boost time – two stages: boost to 900m/s, then sustained 600m/s stage to range
Speed – 900 m/s
Guidance technique – Radio Command SACLOS
Steering program: rocket motor with four steerable handle surfaces
Accuracy – five m
Launch platform – 2S6 combat automobile
The method utilizes the very same 9M311 (NATO: SA-19/SA-N-11)