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Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center: Dornier Do 335A-1 Pfeil (Arrow)
Image by Chris Devers
Quoting Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum | Dornier Do 335 A- Pfeil (Arrow):
The Do-335 was 1 of a modest group of aircraft marking the pinnacle of international piston-engined development. It was the fastest production piston-engined fighter ever built, attaining 846 kilometers per hour (474 mph) in level flight at a time when the official planet speed record was 755 kph (469 mph). Powered by two 1800-hp engines in a exclusive low-drag configuration and weighing 9600 kg (21,000 lb) loaded, it was an exceptional heavy fighter. This quite innovative design and style also featured an ejection seat, for pilot security, and a jettisoning fin.
The unconventional layout of the Do-335 — a single engine "pulling" in the nose and another "pushing" in the tail – was patented by Claudius Dornier in 1937. The configuration offered the power of two engines, but with decreased drag and better maneuverability. The German Aviation Ministry (RLM) was interested in the design, but initially wanted Dornier only to generate bombers. By 1942, Dornier was nevertheless continuing design and style function and the war circumstance was worsening. The Luftwaffe now needed a multi-purpose fighter, and the prototype Do-335V-1 ("V" indicating "versuchs" or "experimental") flew in fighter kind in September, 1943 – six years after its conception. Orders had been quickly placed for 14 prototypes, 10 A- preproduction aircraft, 11 production A-1 single-seaters, and 3 A-ten and A-12 two-seat trainers.
The aircraft was really big for a single-seat fighter, with a cruciform tail and a tricycle landing gear. The two massive liquid-cooled Daimler-Benz DB-603 engines have been utilised in 4 different versions, every displacing 44.5 liters (2670 cu in) and weighing 910 kg (2006 lb). The engine developed 1750 hp from 12 cylinders in an inverted V layout making use of fuel injection and an 8.three:1 compression ratio. The rear 3-bladed propeller and dorsal fin were jettisoned by explosive bolts in an emergency, to let the pilot to bail out safely using a pneumatic ejection seat. The seat, inclined 13 degrees to the rear, was ejected with a force of 20 instances gravity. The ventral fin could be jettisoned for a belly landing.
Unlike a regular twin-engined aircraft, with wing-mounted engines, loss of an engine on the Do-335 did not result in a handling issue. Even with one particular engine out, speed was a respectable 621 kph (348 mph). Due to the fact of its look, pilots dubbed it the "Ant eater" ("Ameisenbar"), though they described its performance as exceptional, particularly in acceleration and turning radius. The Do-335 was really docile in flight and had no unsafe spin qualities. Many Do-335 prototypes had been built, as the Reich strained desperately to supply day and night fighters and quick reconnaissance aircraft to the failing war work. 1 of the several RLM production plans, issued in December 1943, called for the production of 310 Do-335s by late 1945. Initial production was at the Dornier Manuel plant, but this factory was bombed heavily in March-April, 1944, and the Do-335 tooling was destroyed.
Ten Do-335A- preproduction aircraft have been then produced at Dornier’s Oberpfaffenhofen plant in July-October 1944, by which time the Allied bombing campaign was delaying arrivals of engines, propellers, radios, and structural subcomponents. This had a serious effect, since the Do-335 was not a simple aircraft: installation of the electronics alone took 60 hours of assembly, and the electrical parts list was 112 pages long. Production of Daimler-Benz engines, for example, was switched to factories set up in underground salt mines and gypsum mines, but high humidity caused corrosion issues and production dropped 40 %. Even though numerous preproduction aircraft have been issued to combat conversion units some 10 months prior to the war ended, no Do-335s in fact entered combat. Deliveries started to the 1st Experimental Squadron of the Commander-in-Chief of the Luftwaffe ( I/Versuchsverband Ob.d.L.) in late July 1944 for operational trials.
The very first of the Do-335A-1 production version left the Dornier line at Friedrichshafen early in 1945, a single of only four developed in 1945. It was armed with 1 30 mm MK-103 cannon (70 rounds had been carried) firing via the propeller hub and two 15 mm MG-151/15 cannon (200 rounds per gun) firing from the leading of the forward engine. Even with the fighter predicament as desperate as it was, these aircraft were nonetheless equipped to carry 500 kg (1100 lb) of bombs internally. Further operational testing, which includes use of air-to-ground guided missiles, began in Spring 1945 with Trials Unit (Erprobungskommando) 335.
The Do-335A-6 was to be a two-seat evening fighter version with the sophisticated FFO FuG-217J Neptun radar getting triple "trident"-like antennas (hence the name "Neptun") on the fuselage and wings, but only a prototype was completed. A total of 37 prototypes, 10 A-0s, 11 A-1s and 2 A-12 trainers had been built, even though nearly 85 additional aircraft have been in assembly when U.S. troops overran the Friedrichshafen factory in late April, 1945. The Vienna-Swechat plant of the Ernst Heinkel AG was also scheduled to build the Do-335 starting in February, 1945, but production never ever started.
The NASM aircraft is the second Do-335A-, designated A-02, with building number (werke nummer) 240102 and factory registration VG+PH. It was constructed at Dornier’s Rechlin-Oberpfaffenhofen, Germany, plant on April 16, 1945. It was captured by Allied forces at the plant on April 22, 1945. Soon after checkout, it was flown from a grass runway at Oberweisenfeld, close to Munich, to Cherbourg, France. For the duration of this flight, the Do-335 easily outclimbed and outdistanced two escorting P-51s, beating them to Cherbourg by 45 minutes. Below the U.S. Army Air Force’s "Project Sea Horse," two Do-335s had been shipped to the United States aboard the Royal Navy ship HMS "Reaper" together with other captured German aircraft, for detailed evaluation. This aircraft was assigned to the U.S. Navy, which tested it at the Test and Evaluation Center, Patuxent River Naval Air Station, Maryland. The other aircraft, with registration FE-1012 (later T2-1012), went to the USAAF at Freeman Field, Indiana, where it was tested in early 1946. Its subsequent fate is unknown, and this is the only Do-335 recognized to exist.
Following Navy flight tests in 1945-48, the aircraft was donated to the Smithsonian’s National Air Museum in 1961 but was stored at NAS Norfolk till 1974. It was then returned to Oberpfaffenhofen, Germany, exactly where the Dornier firm restored it to original condition in 1975. The return trip to Germany necessary an exemption beneath U.S. laws concerning the export of munitions. The Dornier craftsmen carrying out the restoration – a lot of of whom had worked on the original aircraft — were astonished to find that the explosive charges fitted to blow off the tail fin and rear propeller in an emergency had been nevertheless in the aircraft and active, 30 years right after their original installation! The Do-335 was put on static display at the Might 1-9, 1976, Hannover Airshow, and then loaned to the Deutsches Museum in Munich, where it was on prominent display till returned to Silver Hill, MD, for storage in 1986.
Nation of Origin:
Twin engine, pusher / puller, fighter / bomber grey/green, green late Planet War II improvement.
Image from web page 365 of “The Gardeners’ chronicle : a weekly illustrated journal of horticulture and allied subjects” (1874)
Image by World wide web Archive Book Images
Title: The Gardeners’ chronicle : a weekly illustrated journal of horticulture and allied subjects
Year: 1874 (1870s)
Subjects: Ornamental horticulture Horticulture Plants, Ornamental Gardening
Publisher: London : [Gardeners Chronicle]
Contributing Library: UMass Amherst Libraries
Digitizing Sponsor: Boston Library Consortium Member Libraries
Click right here to view book online to see this illustration in context in a browseable on the web version of this book.
Text Appearing Prior to Image:
rs can choose Jrom upwards (7/500 Machines of Hand, Pony, and Horse Power, and liave their Orders executed the identical day they are received. The above Machines are Warranted to give complete Satisfaction, otherwise thsy could be returned AT After, tree of price to the Purchaser, isj 3 These who have Lawn Mowers which need repairing should send them to eitlier our Leeds or London Establishment, exactly where they will have prompt attention, as an Efficient Employees of Workmen is kept at each areas. GREENS PATENT ROLLERS FOR LAWNS, DRIVES, BOWLING GREENS, CRICKET FIELDS,AND GRAVEL PATHS, SULTABLE FOR HAND OR HORSE Energy. These Rollers are produced in Two Components, and are totally free in revolving on the axis, which affords higher facility forturning. The outer edges are rounded off, or turned inwards, so that the unsightly marks left by other Rollersare avoided.Diam. Lengtll. £t s. d, Diam. Length. _ C s. d. 16 inches by 17 inches … … two 15 o I 24 inches by 26 inches 500 20 „ 22 „ four o o I 30 „ 32 „ 900
Text Appearing Right after Image:
Cost Diam. Length. 30 inches by 32 inches30 » 36 „ OF ROLLERS, IN TWO Components, Fitted with Shafos for Pony or Horse. 30 42 £. s. d. Diam. Length. 13 ten 30 inches by 48 inches 14 30 ), 60 „ 15 ten 30 „ 72 „ 17 o19 1022 O Weight Boxes added, and Special Quotations created for Rollers 3, three^, and feet diameter, fitted with Shafts for A single or Two Horses.Delivered, Carriage Free of charge, to the principal Railway Stations and Shipping Ports in England and Scotland. THEY CAN BE HAD OF ALL RESPECTABLE IRONMONGERS AND SEEDSMEN IN THE UNITED KINGDOM, OR DIRECT FRO.M THE Companies, GREENS PATENT STEAIVI ROAD ROLLER AND TRACTION ENGINE COMBINED. Appropriate for Rolling Carriage Drives, Parks, Roads, Walks, &c., and for Rolling Lawns, Cricket Flats, Parks, &c.. And ivhich caii also be tised as a Stationary Engine for Wood Sazoing, Stone Breaking, Pumping, Farm Purposes, and other various perform. PARTICULARS AND ESTIMATES ON APPLICATION TO THOMAS GREEN k SON, Smithfieid Ironworks, Leeds
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