Some cool surface grinding photos:
Image by Alexander Glavtchev
Burnin’ rubber apparently melts asphalt!
Image from page 44 of “Illustrated catalogue of the extremely worthwhile art home belonging to the estate of the well-recognized connoisseur, the late James a. Garland, Esq. a former trustee of the Metropolitan Museum of Art [electronic resource]” (1909)
Image by Internet Archive Book Images
Title: Illustrated catalogue of the extremely beneficial art home belonging to the estate of the nicely-identified connoisseur, the late James a. Garland, Esq. a former trustee of the Metropolitan Museum of Art [electronic resource]
Year: 1909 (1900s)
Authors: American Art Association Kirby, Thomas E. (Thomas Ellis), 1846-1924 American Art Galleries
Subjects: Garland, James Albert, 1870-1906
Publisher: New York : American Art Association
Contributing Library: Frick Art Reference Library
Digitizing Sponsor: Metropolitan New York Library Council METRO
Click right here to view book on-line to see this illustration in context in a browseable on the internet version of this book.
Text Appearing Ahead of Image:
No. 19AUTUMN MORNING BY .IlLES DUPHE No. 19 JULES DUPRE FRENCH1812-1889 AUTUMN MORNING By the margin of a silvery stream a man is mooring hisboat in the shade afforded by a clump of trees. From the low-lying bank a roadway leads across a green field to a couple ofhumble cottages in the middle distance. Beyond, the groundrises into a graceful, rounded hillside, which stretches acrossthe picture. Overhead the sky is a serene blue, with a heavybank of rolling cloud near the horizon, from behind which asun ray darts down, silvers the trunk of a tree in the fore-ground, and falling just behind the cottages, affords a brilliantnote of light amongst the prevailing low tones of the picture.The blue of the sky is reflected in the mirror-Iikc surface ofthe river, save where the dark green of the trees plunges thewater into semiobscurity. Signed on the decrease correct. Jules Dvpni J/eight, 2% inches length, 25 % inches Collection OS M. Kmikhler & Co.
Text Appearing After Image:
No. 20 LANDSCAPE—CATTLE AND POOL BY JULES DUPRE No. 20JULES DUPRE FRENCH 1812-18S9 LANDSCAPE—CATTLE AND POOL In the golden glow of a late summers afternoon, theherdsman drives his cows down to their drinking-spot. Theprocession strings out across the meadow, the leaders alreadystanding knee deep in the shallow waters of the old pond.Beyond the meadow stands the farmhouse, a low building witha thatched roof, shaded by the spreading branches of a hugeoak, and in the far distance the dim outline of blue hillsstretches across the picture. Low down upon the horizon is aheavy stratum of cloud, tinged pink by the rays of the declin-ing sun, while overhead the heavens are of a still, calm blue,full of peaceful atmosphere. Signed on the Iteuf correct, Jl les Dltre Height, 20% inches length, 31inches COLLECTION OF M. KXOEIU.EK & Co.
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Hagen – Freilichtmuseum Hagen – Lohgerbermühle Water wheel
Image by Daniel Mennerich
The Hagen Open-air Museum (LWL-Freilichtmuseum Hagen – Westfälisches Landesmuseum für Handwerk und Technik English: "LWL Open-air Museum Hagen – Westphalian State Museum for Craft and Technics") is a museum at Hagen in the southeastern Ruhr location, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. It was founded, with each other with the Detmold Open-air Museum, in 1960, and was very first opened to the public in the early 1970s. The museum is run by the Landschaftsverband Westfalen-Lippe (LWL, regional authority for Westphalia and Lippe inside North Rhine-Westphalia). It lies in the Hagen neighbourhood of Selbecke south of Eilpe in the Mäckingerbach valley.
The open-air museum brings a bit of skilled-trade history into the present, and it takes a hands-on strategy. On its grounds stretching for about 42 ha, not only are urban and rural trades basically "displayed" along with their workshops and tools, but in far more than twenty of the practically sixty rebuilt workshops, they are still practised, and interested guests can, occasionally by themselves, take element in the production.
As early as the 1920s, there were efforts by a group of engineers and historical preservationists to preserve technological monuments for posterity. The initiator, Wilhelm Claas, even recommended the Mäckingerbach valley as a very good place for a museum to that end. The narrow valley was chosen, as wind, water and wood had been the 3 most essential location factors for market in the 18th and 19th centuries.
In 1960, the Westphalian Open-Air Museum was founded, and thirteen years later, the gates opened to the public. As opposed to most open-air museums, which show every day life on the farm or in the nation as it was in days gone by, the Hagen Open-Air Museum puts the history of these activities in Westphalia in the fore. From the late 18th century via the early years of the Industrial Revolution to the highly industrialized society emerging in the early 20th century, the visitor can encounter the improvement of these trades and the industry in the area.
Crafts and trades demonstrated at the Westphalian Open-Air Museum consist of ropemaking, smithing, brewing, baking, tanning, printing, milling, papermaking, and considerably a lot more. A favourite attraction is the triphammer workshop shown in the image above. After the hammer is engaged, a craftsman goes to work noisily forging a scythe, passing it among the hammer and the anvil underneath in a method named peening.
The Hagen Westphalian Open-Air Museum is open from March or April till October.
A water wheel is a machine for converting the power of free-flowing or falling water into beneficial types of energy, typically in a watermill. A water wheel consists of a big wooden or metal wheel, with a number of blades or buckets arranged on the outside rim forming the driving surface. Most generally, the wheel is mounted vertically on a horizontal axle, but the tub or Norse wheel is mounted horizontally on a vertical shaft. Vertical wheels can transmit energy either by way of the axle or by means of a ring gear and typically drive belts or gears horizontal wheels generally straight drive their load.
Water wheels have been nonetheless in commercial use effectively into the 20th century, but they are no longer in typical use. Prior utilizes of water wheels consist of milling flour in gristmills and grinding wood into pulp for papermaking, but other makes use of include hammering wrought iron, machining, ore crushing and pounding fiber for use in the manufacture of cloth.
Some water wheels are fed by water from a mill pond, which is formed when a flowing stream is dammed. A channel for the water flowing to or from a water wheel is known as a mill race (also spelled millrace) or simply a "race", and is customarily divided into sections. The race bringing water from the mill pond to the water wheel is a headrace the one particular carrying water right after it has left the wheel is generally referred to as a tailrace.
John Smeaton’s scientific investigation of the water wheel led to considerable increases in efficiency in the mid to late 18th century and supplying much necessary energy for the Industrial Revolution.
Water wheels started becoming displaced by the smaller sized, much less costly and far more efficient turbine created by Benoît Fourneyron, beginning with his very first model in 1827.[three] Turbines are capable of handling higher heads, or elevations, that exceed the capability of sensible-sized waterwheels.
The principal difficulty of water wheels is their dependence on flowing water, which limits where they can be located. Modern hydroelectric dams can be viewed as the descendants of the water wheel, as they also take benefit of the movement of water downhill.